dirk hr spennemann

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1997—2000
Publications by Dirk HR Spennemann
 


Archaeology & Prehistory
 

2000

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). A 19th century excavation of a burial mound on Penrhyn (Tongareva), Cook Islands. Archaeology in New Zealand 43(2), pp. 139-143.
 

1999

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Zu einer neolithischen Kulturerscheinung Polynesiens - Ein Beitrag zum Kulturwandel der Lapita-Kultur. in: F.-R.Herrmann (ed.), Festschrift für Günter Smolla. Materialien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte von Hessen nª 8 Wiesbaden: Landesamt für Bodendenkmalpflege. Vol II., pp. 679-696.

The chapter discusses the initial human settlement on Samoa and Tonga and argues that after an initial phase of settlements near the shore line, people developed the horticultural potential of the hinterland and, over time, moved inland. [As the manuscript for the paper had been submitted in December 1982 much of the paper content is outdated, largely proven correct and supplanted by the findings of my own PhD thesis in 1990).

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) No room for the dead. Burial practices in a constrained environment. Anthropos 94(1), pp. 35-56.

The amount of land available on the atolls of the Marshall Islands is very limited and fertile land is few. Traditionally, the land was not enough to permit the interment of all dead and so the less important commoners were afforded a burial at sea. With the onset of Christianisation everybody was afforded a burial on land, leading to cemeteries being erected at marginal locations, today often eroding into the sea. The paper reviews the available information on prehistoric, traditional and modern burial customs and discusses the implications of current population growth on the present and future burial needs of the Marshallese population.

 
 

1998

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) "Nothing is more permanent than a posthole" or: A contribution to the archaeology of the Common or Garden hole. in: Martin Schmidt (ed.), "Geschichte heißt: So ist's gewesen! abgesehen von dem wie `s war. Geburtstagsgrüße für Günter Smolla. Archäologische Berichte vol. 11. Bonn: Rudolf Habelt. Pp. 1-40.

Based on several excavations, this paper reviews the archaeological evidence for house structures on Tongatapu. The only indisputable evidence for houses was encountered on Pangaimotu, where it seems likely that an oval-shaped building without central posts, as well as a rectangular building (fale fakafefine or fale fakafuna), can be documented.
The excavations at Ha'ateiho yielded a large number of circular discolourations which do not align into discernible patterns. Some of these discolourations are postholes, while most are planting holes. Based on the distribution of the density of the holes, it seems likely that some buildings existed to the southeast of mound TO-At-85 and to the north and northwest of mound TO-AT-86. However, this study shows that trying to distinguish between postholes and planting holes in the non-mounded area is fraught with problems. Despite a range of approaches taken, no distinction could be made which was valid beyond reasonable doubt.
However, the excavations at TO-At-85, albeit unintentionally, have helped to understand matters I did not intend to find out: that the average Tongan yams planting hole is 53 cm deep, has a diameter of 30.5 cm, possesses a bowl- or basin-shaped bottom, has no slant, and is filled with soils of rather varied compactness.

 
 

1997

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Wal R. Ambrose (1997) Sea-borne obsidian transport and its implications on the interpretation of Pacific prehistory. Antiquity 71, pp. 188-193.

A piece of pumice encountered among other drift material on Nadikdik Atoll, Marshall Islands, was found to have a large chunk of obsidian attached to it. As the atoll had been devastated by a typhoon and associated storm surge in 1905 the deposition of the piece must have occurred by sea-borne transport in the last 90 years. The paper discusses this and similar incidence of raw material distributed by ocean drift. While occurrence of obsidian in far-flung places is likely to have been caused by human transport, sea-borne dispersal cannot be excluded offhand.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) German colonial observations on walls and house sites in the interior of Upolu, Samoa. Archaeology in New Zealand 40(2), pp. 134-135.

Paper presenting extracts from a German German colonial newspaper report on the agricultural productivity of Upolu, Samoa, which contains observations on walls and house sites in the interior of the island.

 

 

 


20th Century Heritage
 

2000

O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Conservation Assessment of the Joachim De Brum House, Likiep Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Johnstone Centre Report nª 151. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. ISBN 1 86467 085 1.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Hundertwasser. Art, Architecture and Heritage in Bad Soden, Germany. The Journal of Architecture 5, pp. 117-136.

Without doubt, the 1993-completed "Hundertwasser in den Wiesen" in Bad Soden (Germany) constitutes a radical departure from standard condominium development, established western building design principles and and provides a conceptual and visual challenge to citizen and visitor alike. The pueblo design avoids to the maximum extent possible the use of horizontal and geometrical forms. The building complex according to Hundertwasser conceptualised as a reunfication of human living with natural principles incorporates a historic heritage-listed structure.
This paper discusses the building, both from the view of architecture and art, followed by an introduction to the architect/artist and his work. A description of the controversies surrounding the structure follows, giving way to a discussion of various aspects of heritage and heritage management with special emphasis on issues relating to the treatment of an adjacent heritage listed building. Some observations on the future of the Hundertwasser complex conclude the paper.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Eight-inch Coastal Defense Guns in Micronesia. Coast Defense Study Group Journal 14(2), pp. 40-64.

Paper describing the Italian-built but British-pattern battleship guns, which were emplaced as coastal defense guns by the Japanese Navy on Chuuk, Tarawa and Wake Island during World War II. The paper discusses the origin, history and current status of the guns.

 
 

1999

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) British Naval Heritage in Micronesia-The coastal defense guns of the Marshalls, Pohnpei and Chuuk. Coast Defense Study Group Journal 13(1), pp. 34-56.

Paper outlining the nature and origin of Japanese coastal defense guns emplaced on the atolls of the Marshall Islands. The vast majority of the guns stem from British warships which had been bought by the Japanese in prior to World War I and which had to be decommissioned following the Washington Treaty of 1922.

 
 

1998

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) German Colonial Heritage in Micronesia in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report no. 123. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. p. 45.

Lipscombe, Neil, Cosgriff, Kevin, Klomp, Nick, Spennemann, Dirk H.R.(1998) Eurobodalla National Park, NSW, Lake Brou. Day Use and Camping Facilities. Design Proposal and review of Environmental Factors. Johnstone Centre Report nª 112. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. 64 pp.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R.(1998) The potential impacts of proposed recreation facilities on cultural heritage sites at Lake Brou, Narooma, Eurobodalla National Park. Johnstone Centre Report nª 111. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) "Is there a Problem.?" Urban Salinity and Heritage in the Murray-Darling Basin in: Conference Proceedings "Urban salinity, a snapshot of the future" Wagga Wagga, 11 and 12 August 1998, Albury: Australian Association of Natural Resource Management. Pp. 153-163.

The perceptions of heritage managers related to the incidence of salinity and its impact on heritage were surveyed in 149 local government areas (LGAs) in the Murray-Darling Basin. They survey administered in December 1997 and January 1998 (response rate 76%) showed that salinity is seen primarily as a rural problem affecting agriculturally productive land. The threat of salinity to heritage structures was ranked similar to domestic homes, roads and the like.

In comparison to other threats impacting on the cultural heritage places in the LGAs salinity was seen as one on the smallest threats, only exceeded by earthquakes. The study found high levels of 'don't know' answers, indicating that education needs exist, but that these needs are varied in the community of heritage officers.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Urban Salinity and Cultural Heritage: Studying the impact of an anthropogenic disaster in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report no. 123. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. p. 46.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Mitigating salt attack in our historic environment. in Nico Marcar (ed.) Managing saltland into the 21st century (Tamworth 10-12 March 1998) Conference Papers [Preprints]. Canberra: CSIRO, Forestry and Forest Products. pp. 13-18.

Urban salinity is exacting its toll on the historic environment that makes our country towns so different from the sprawling suburbia of the metropolitan cities. Historic buildings are very susceptible to raised saline ground water levels. This paper reviews the nature of the threat and the extent of the impending change, and discusses the relative merits of the various mitigation options available not only in terms of cost to the community, but also in terms of the ethical management of our irreplaceable cultural heritage.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) The olive grove at Charles Sturt University. Bulletin of the Wagga Wagga Historical Society 312, pp. 4-8.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (1998) From food to weed in 150 years: Human and non-human dispersal of olives in Australia in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report no. 123. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. p. 49.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Cultural heritage management of unexploded ammunition. CRM Bulletin 21(8), pp. 48-51.

The paper reviews the issues of unexploded ordnance removal at and near heritage sites and provides options for action, aimed at safe guarding life and property of visitors and heritage managers while at the same time not unduly impairing the heritage items.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. I. Biology and History. Johnstone Centre Report no. 100. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

 

1997

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Urban Salinity as a threat to cultural heritage places. A primer on the mechanics and effects of chloridation. Albury, NSW: Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 14pp. ISBN: 1 875 758 47 X

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Compounding the effect of dryland salinity: manurial applications of salt in the 19th century. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report nª 97. Albury, NSW: Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. ISBN: 1 875758 64 X

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) And the walls came tumbling and crumbling down: Dryland and urban salinity as a threat to the historical heritage of the Southern Riverina in: Jim Pratley (ed.), Proceedings of the 1996 Annual Conference of the Riverina Academy of Sciences Wagga Wagga., Wagga Wagga: Charles Sturt University. Pp. 1-16.

Dryland salinity not only poses a threat to the productivity of pastures and arable land, but also affects the built environment, both current infrastructure components such as roads and bridges and our historic heritage. Many historic buildings are prone to the ingress of moisture and the concomitant deleterious effects of the moisture on associated fabric. The soluble salts in the ground water pose an even greater threat when they are introduced via capillary action into historic or modern fabric. Associated with the seasonal fluctuations of the high ground water table will be shrinking and swelling of the soil substrate which will affect the stability of the foundations, and may cause differential settlement of parts of a structure. Further, the moisture saturated subsoils underneath structures are prone to liquefaction during earthquake events, amplifying the effects of the ground motion and causing structures to partially subside and to fail. There is an urgent need for town planners and heritage managers to appreciate the potential dangers posed by dryland salinity and rising ground water tables. Mitigative action is required now. Failure to act will result in substantial elements of our built heritage literally crumbling in front of our eyes.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Proactive Cultural Heritage Management: "Advertising" options for Pacific Island Countries Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 81. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Meyenn, Robert J. & Vusoniwailala, Kate (1997) Melanesian Cultural Heritage Management Programme. Programme Proposal. Final Report. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 74. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
  

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Meyenn, Robert J. & Vusoniwailala, Kate (1997) Melanesian Cultural Heritage Management Programme. LOGFRAME Matrices Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 75. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
  

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Aspects of Indigenous Cultural Heritage Management in Australia in: Commonwealth of Australia, Joint Committee on Native Title and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Land Fund. Offical Hansard Report for the hearing in Melbourne on 24 October 1997, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. NT, Pp. 909-917.

 

 


Anthropology
 

2000

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) The Marshall Islands in: Steve Gilbert (ed.), Tattooing History Source Book. New York: Juno Books. Pp. 163-171.
 

1997

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Encyclopedia Entry: "2.II.8.h-ii Tongan: fence" in P.Oliver (ed.), Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. 2 Cultures and Habitats. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge P. 1124.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Encyclopedia Entry: "2.II.5.j. Marshalls: colonial (Marshalls)" inP.Oliver (ed.), Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. 2 Cultures and Habitats. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge P. 1162.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Encyclopedia Entry: "2.II.5.i. Marshallese (Marshalls)" inP.Oliver (ed.), Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. 2 Cultures and Habitats. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge Pp. 1161-1162.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Encyclopedia Entry: "2.II.8.h-iii Tongan: outhouses" inP.Oliver (ed.), Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. 2 Cultures and Habitats. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge Pp. 1124-1125.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Report on the skeletal remains from the personel shelter (site 115) and from the Reuter's Island, Shore Taroa Island, Maloelap Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands in: Adams, William, H., Ross, Richard, E., Krause, Elisabeth, L. and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (eds), Micronesian Resources Study, Marshall Islands Archaeology. The Japanese Airbase on Taroa Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1937-1945: an evaluation of World War II Remains., San Francisco, Calif. : Micronesian Endowment for Historic Preservation, US National Park Service. Pp. 128-131.

During the survey for the Micronesian Cultural Resources Study small remains of human bone were encountered inside the concrete anti-bomb personnel shelter associated with barracks building A of the Japanese airbase on Taroa Island, Maloelap Atoll. The report provides a description of the bone fragments, which were too small to yield any meaningful measurements.

 

 

 


Cultural & Natural Environment
 

in press
 

2000
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as a future woody weeds in Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40(6), pp. 889-901.

The recent thrust to develop an Australian olive industry has resulted in the wide-spread planting of olive (Olea europaea europaea) orchards. In some places such as the Adelaide hills, feral olives have become established as a major environmental weed. This paper reviews the international literature on the cultivation of olives with particular reference to reports on the activity of vertebrate (principally avian) olive predators and their potential as vectors for spreading this plant into Australian remnant bushland. The effects of feralisation on the olive plant which enhance its capacity for dispersal as a weed, control of olives as woody weeds and obligations of olive producers to the future are discussed.

  Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (2000) The avian dispersal of olives Olea europaea: Implications for Australia. Emu 100(4), pp. 264-273.

Around the Mediterranean olives are an important food source for birds, and are now emerging as a significant component of the diet of some Australian frugivores. Attempts over the past 200 years to establish an olive oil industry in Australia have led to many neglected olive groves which have become havens for frugivorous birds. Worldwide, olives have proved to be a successful invader of disturbed lands, with birds as the principal seed vectors. A proliferation of new olive orchards in the 1990s and the effect of naturalisation on the size of olive drupes has the potential, with help from the avian fauna, to accelerate the dispersal of this woody weed in Australia.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998 [2000]) Japanese economic exploitation of Central Pacific Atoll seabird populations 1898-1915. Pacific Studies Vol. 21(1/2), pp. 1-41.

At the turn of the century Japanese feather collectors visited most isolated atolls of the Central Pacific Ocean. The bird populations of these atolls were decimated to supply the demand of the market for exotic feathers created by the European fashion industry. This paper reviews the history and dimensions of the feather trade in the Central Pacific and describes the responses of the affected nations.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (2000) From cultivar to weed: the spread of olives in Australia. Olivae 82, pp. 44-56.

Paper discussing the weed potential of cultivated olives in Australia.
Also published in French, Italian and Spanish editions.
De l'olivier cultive a l'olivier sauvage: la diffusion des oliviers en Australie. Olivae (Edition Française) 82, pp. 44-56.
Il passagio dall'olivo selvatico all'olivo domestico: la progazione dell'oliva in Australia. Olivae (Edizzione Italiana) 82, pp. 44-56.
De olivo cultivado al asilvestrado: la diffusion del olivo en Australia. Olivae (Edici´n Espa&nntilde;ola) 82, pp. 44-56.

 
 

1999

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998[1999]) Excessive harvesting of Pacific seabird populations at the turn of the 20th century. Marine Ornithology 26: 49-57.

At the turn of the century, the uninhabited atolls of the Central Pacific were visited by Japanese feather and plumage collectors, whose actions devastated the bird populations. An assessment of the historic record shows that between 1897 and 1914 over 3.5 million seabirds were killed in the Central Pacific in the name of fashion. While the populations have recovered on some atolls, other islands do not show the original species diversity. Today the survival of the breeding colonies is again threatened as changing global climatic conditions bring about an increased chance that the remaining populations on the generally very low-lying atolls could come under threat from typhoons and storm surges, rather than the anthropogenic disasters of the past. Yet, without knowledge of the historic developments the current distribution of some species could not be understood.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Exploitation of bird plumages in the German Mariana Islands. Micronesica Vol. 31(2), pp. 309-318.

At the turn of the century, the uninhabited atolls of the Central Pacific were visited by Japanese feather and plumage collectors, whose actions devastated the bird populations. An assessment of the historic record shows that between 1897 and 1914 over 3.5 million seabirds were killed in the Central Pacific in the name of fashion. While the populations have recovered on some atolls, other islands do not show the original species diversity. Today the survival of the breeding colonies is again threatened as changing global climatic conditions bring about an increased chance that the remaining populations on the generally very low-lying atolls could come under threat from typhoons and storm surges, rather than the anthropogenic disasters of the past. Yet, without knowledge of the historic developments the current distribution of some species could not be understood.

 
 

1998

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Japanese poaching and the enforcement of German souvereignty in the Marshall Islands. Journal of Pacific History 38(1), pp. 51-67.

In the first decade of the 20th century Japanese plumage hunters visited many of the uninhabited Central Pacific atolls depleting the local bird populations. When a group of Marshallese engaged in traditional birding surprised a group of Japanese on remote Bokak Atoll in 1909, the German colonial administrator was forced to deal with the issue without guidance from Berlin. This paper describes the events and reviews the German actions in the light of similar incidents in Hawaii.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) History and Ecology: Early 20th century Exploitation of Seabirds on Pacific Atolls in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report no. 123. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. p. 47.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) A note on a 19th century sighting of a ground-dwelling bird on Bokak, the northernmost atoll of the Marshall Islands. Corella 17(1), pp. 44-45.

The paper reviews archival evidence on the 19th century sighting of a flightless bird, presumably a rail or megapode species, on Bokak Atoll, Marshall Islands.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) The effects of the 1871-72 earthquakes on the Southern Riverina. An overview of historical and anecdotal data. Johnstone Centre Report 102. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
       

 

1997

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) A Holocene sea-level history for Tongatapu, Kingdom of Tonga. in: Alan M. Sherwood, Russell Howorth and Peter Rodda (eds), Coastal and Environmental Geoscience Studies of the Southwest Pacific Islands, Suva, Fiji: South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission Technical Bulletin 9, pp. 115-153.

A Holocene sea-level history for Tongatapu is presented which is based on the compilation of previously published data on the emergence of coral reefs and on the results of recently conducted fieldwork on the species composition and shell size distribution of molluscs over time. Because the dates on the corals represent death ages, they can only provide a terminus post quem for the drop in sealevel and cannot be used for a detailed reconstruction of the sealevel history in the times thereafter. The molluscs contained in archaeological shell-middens, however, provide a record of the nature and extent of environmental change on Tongatapu since human settlement, i.e. over the past 3500 years. This study is complemented by the analysis of transects of soil profiles and an assessment of the topography of a former lagoonal entrance.
Based on radiocarbon dates on emerged corals and on buried sand beaches, this study has been able to confirm Taylor's (1978) assessment of a Holocene sealevel maximum of at least 2.2 m above present MSL. Wave solution notches suggest that a sealevel maximum of as much as 3.7 m above MSL is possible. The rising Holocene sealevel attained a level equal to the present level before 7000 cal BP and reached its maximum (2.2 m above present) by about 7000 cal BP (see Appendix 2 for conventions of dates). During the Holocene sealevel maximum, Tongatapu possessed a large open bay with some islets in its entrance. With a drop in relative sealevel these islets merged and formed the present Nuku'alofa peninsula, effectively cutting off the western part of the bay from the sea and creating the present inner lagoon. Based on the evidence of the coral dates it can be shown that this closure occurred at 7000 cal BP at the low-tide level, and, based on the evidence of the shell dates, that the former bay was cut off at the high-tide level by about 2500 cal BP.
While sealevel had been rising rapidly until 6600 BP due to eustatic change, the isostatic rebound over the past 6000 years seems to have been gradual. Detailed investigations of the size and composition of shells within and below several archaeological shell middens show that while the overall trend was linear, sealevel adjustment apparently happened in an oscillating manner, causing fluctuating flushing conditions within the bay.
Some evidence for a sealevel highstand during the Holocene and a subsequent negative adjustment can be noted on other islands of the Tongan chain, which show different tectonic histories during the Quaternary. In conjunction with the lack of any conclusive evidence for coseismic emergence on Tongatapu, it seems that the Holocene sealevel change on Tongatapu is due to isostatic rebound.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Distribution of rat species on the atolls of the Marshall Islands: Past and present dispersal. Atoll Research Bulletin 445, pp. 1-8.

The paper reviews the evidence for past and present dispersal of rats (Rattus exulans, R. rattus and R. norvegicus) in the Marshall Islands. The introduction of R. rattus to various atolls can be traced to the military developments of World War II, mainly the construction of jetties.
  

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) On the origin of drift materials in the Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 444, pp. 1-8.

The oceanic dispersal of plants and animals has been the focus of some studies ever since organised natural history started in the Pacific, and the dispersal by sea rafting has been given due consideration. The finding of drift materials such as glass floats, tree trunks and seeds, is a common occurrence on the shores of Pacific Islands, but in most cases the origin of that material is unknown or at least equivocal. Thus while the principle of sea rafted dispersal is known and reported at length, there is a need to document those occasions where positive proof of origin can be furnished.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Geomorphological survey of Taroa Island, Maloelap Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. in: Adams, William, H., Ross, Richard, E., Krause, Elisabeth, L. and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (eds), Micronesian Resources Study, Marshall Islands Archaeology. The Japanese Airbase on Taroa Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1937-1945: an evaluation of World War II Remains., San Francisco, Calif. : Micronesian Endowment for Historic Preservation, US National Park Service. Pp. 107-127.

As part of the Micronesian Cultural Resources study a brief geomorphological survey was carried out on Taroa Island, Maloelap Atoll, to assess the rate of shoreline modification and the implications on the management of cultural heritage sites. Drawing on data derived from physical survey work in 1989 and historic data provided by the bomb target maps and aerial photographs taken by US forces during World War II it was found that substantial shoreline change had occurred at the lagoonal side of Taroa and the ocean side of Eoon-epje, and islet south of Taroa, now joined by a causeway. The construction of the causeway as part of the Japanese base development was seen as causal to the erosion because the curtrent patterns had changed with the closure of the former reef channel between Taroa and Eoon-epje.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (1997) Investigation into vertebrate vectors dispersing olives (Olea europaea). Frugivory Updates Vol. 8.

Allen, L.Richard & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Woodland birds - woodland weed vectors? in: Birds Australia 1997 Congress ' Birds and woodlands' Charles Sturt University Albury NSW 4 & 5 October 1997.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Unsustainable harvesting of Pacific seabird populations at the turn of the 20th century in: Conference Abstracts, ESA 97 1997 Conference, 1-3 October, 1997. Charles Sturt University, Albury,. Pp. 87.

At present much discussion occurs on the reduction of sea bird populations caused by the destruction of breeding habitats due to resource exploitation and development. On the small islands of the Central Pacific sea bird habitats are threatened by climate-change induced variations of cyclone patterns and sea-levels. At the turn of the century the single most serious threat to the survival of these birds occurred in the form of plumage hunters who stripped several islands bare of their bird populations, killing millions of sea birds in the spate of less than a decade. Some of these populations recovered, while others succumbed to continued pressure due to (military) development.

 

 

 


Disasters & Disaster Management
 

2000

Look, David W. & Spenneman, Dirk H.R. (2000) Disaster Preparedness for Cultural Properties. Cultural Resource Management 23(6), pp. 3-5.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) 1905 typhoon kills over 200 Marshallese. Marshall Islands Journal 31(13), pp. 14-15.
 

1999

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Cultural heritage conservation during emergency management: luxury or necessity? International Journal of Public Administration 22(1), pp. 745-804.

Annually natural disasters cause loss of life, damage to property and damage to the environment. Concomitant is damage to the cultural heritage property, both items and places. Yet in the wake of a disaster containment and response efforts put additional cultural resources at risk--usually due to ignorance rather than malice on the part of the disaster manager or the property owners. This paper reviews the effects of natural disasters on heritage sites and argues for increased awareness and training for disaster managers.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Mitigation of salt damage to the historic built environment. in: Nico E. Marcar and A.K.M. Afzal Hossain (eds), Managing saltland into the 21st century: Dollars and Sense from Salt. Proceedings 5th national conference Tamworth, NSW, Australia, 9th to 13th March 1998. Canberra: National Committee for the Productive Use and Rehabilitation of Saline Land. Pp. 13-19.

Urban salinity is exacting its toll on the historic environment that makes our country towns so different from the sprawling suburbia of the metropolitan cities. Historic buildings are very susceptible to raised saline ground water levels. This paper reviews the nature of the threat and the extent of the impending change, and discusses the relative merits of the various mitigation options available not only in terms of cost to the community, but also in terms of the ethical management of our irreplaceable cultural heritage.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Marcar, Nico (1999) Urban and heritage landscapes. Under the saline threat. Natural Resource Management 2(1), 14-17.

Human-induced dryland and irrigation salinity are major forms of land degradation in rural areas, particularly in southern Australia. Salinity is also impacting significantly on the historic environment that makes Australia's country towns so different from the sprawling suburbia of larger cities. It is not only historic buildings but also formal private gardens and street plantings that are being affected and placed at risk. This is because many plants, especially those introduced to Australia and commonly used in these situations, are susceptible to elevated soil salinity levels. Any changes in the vegetative make up of Australian towns are likely to alter their character. This paper reviews the nature of the threat and the extent of the impending change, and discusses the relative merits of the various mitigation options available.
  

 

1998
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. I. Biology and History. Johnstone Centre Report no. 100. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. II. Distances, rate and vectors of seed dispersal. Johnstone Centre Report no. 101. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. III. Impact on heritage resources and eradication. Johnstone Centre Report no. 120. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Conservation management and mitigation of the impact of tropical cyclones on archaeological sites in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites. San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 113-133.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1998) From Conflict to dialogue, from dialogue to cooperation, from cooperation to preservation in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites , San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 175-188.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Natural Disaster Mitigation and Cultural Heritage: a course proposal in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites , San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 151-164.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1998) Managing disasters and managing disaster responses: an introduction in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites , San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 1-6.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1998) Preface. in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites , San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. iii–vi.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Green, David G. (1998) A special interest network for natural hazard mitigation for cultural heritage sites. in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites. San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 165-172.

 

 


Cultural Tourism & Interpretation
 

2000

Look, David W. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium, Rota, Feb. 28-Mar. 3, 2000. Cultural Resource Management 23(3), p. 35.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Memories, Memorabilia and Monuments: Private, Territorial and Federal Interpretations of the Pacific War in Guam. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) The four Axiomata for the management of Cultural Heritage Places. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Visitor Management Plans. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Promoting Heritage: Strategies for Subliminal Marketing. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Visitors and their Impact: Protecting Heritage Ecotourism Places from their Clientele. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
 

1998

Midgley, Emma, Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Johnstone, Harvey (1998) The impact of visitors on Aboriginal Sites in Mungo National Park. Archaeology in Oceania 33(3), pp. 221-231.

Visitor impact is an inherent and dynamic component of cultural heritage management whenever cultural sites are accessed by people. Mungo National Park has become the focus of some 35,000 visitors per year. The impacts these visitors have on the archaeological record is investigated in this study. A series of fourteen mock sites, composed of stone artefact and bone scatters, were created in the park and the impacts that visitors had on these sites were monitored over a five month period. The results indicate that high visitation areas are subject to a variety of impacts, and site components are frequently moved, turned over, clustered and pilfered. Recognition of these impacts can lead to improvements in the management and conservation of archaeological sites.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Taffee, Richard (1998) Managing childrens' interactions with cultural heritage placesJournal of Park and Recreation Administration 16(2), pp. 73-87.

The impact of children on cultural heritage places is a phenomenon dreaded by parks managers. Children's means of exploring and comprehending the world around them is much more direct and less abstract than that of adults. By understanding children's learning behaviour the processes leading to a detrimental impact can not only be avoided, but moreover be turned into a positive experience for children and parents alike. Parks Management can be informed by experiences garnered in the fields of museum interpretation and education in zoological and marine parks.
The mere provision of textual and pictorial information is limiting the learning experience of children, as well as that of many adults. Show-cased specimens of artefacts are illustrative to an adult audience, they are 'remote' for children. Management needs to provide for controlled environments in which children can satisfy their needs of examining artefacts and sensitive items on their terms through touch tables and other interactive displays forcing the adoption of different postures etc. If well done, this satisfies children's need for physical exploration and reduces impact in the open space setting.
For geographically remote parks there is a need to provide an outlet for children to 'let off steam' after a long trip in the car. The establishment of an adventure playground would be desirable, preferably designed with thematic reference to the specific park visited.

Park infrastructure must address children's learning and energy dissipation needs through the provision of interpretation centres and (outside) activity areas appropriate to children of various ages.
This needs to be coupled with information and guidelines for parents visiting parks, including strategies to control and channel children's actions and energy through (i) careful planning of the trip and the approaches to the park; (ii) planning of activities at arrival and (iii) guidelines for appropriate parental control during the visit.
Parents will have a better visitor experience if their children are engaged in a captivating learning experience. Such children will be less demanding of parental control and their parents will have more time to follow their own interests. It follows that such parents will also be more responsive to issues of nature and cultural conservation.

 
 


History
 

2000

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Aurora Australis. The German Period in the Mariana Islands 1899-1914. Division of Historic Preservation Occasional Historical Papers Series nª 5. Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Division of Historic Preservation.
viii, 247 pp, 5x7 in. ISBN 1-878453-36-X.

[book blurp and ordering information]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Centenary of olive processing at Charles Sturt University. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Charles Sturt University. 16pp. Second edition.

Revised reprint of a booklet setting out the history of the olivetum and olive production at the former Wagga Agricultural Experimental Farm, now Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga Campus. Describes the olivetum and lists the olive varieties planted there, and summarises the history of olive research carried out at Wagga Wagga.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Combining science with education: the beginnings of agricultural extension in 1890s New South Wales (Australia). Rural Society 10(2), pp. 175-194.

Agricultural extension started in New South Wales (Australia) with the commencement of the Department of Agriculture in 1890 and the establishment of a body of scientists to answer farmers' queries and to educate farmers in their findings. This paper charts the beginnings of extension and the various concepts developed, highlighting the contributions of Nathan A. Cobb (1859-1932).

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane (2000) Creating a media persona in 19th century colonial Australasia: the case of Handley Bathurst Sterndale. Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin 24(1), pp. 50-67.

The role of regional and colonial newspapers as means of opinion creation and modification is well documented. As is still practice today, editorials and invited/solicited series on various topics created a public discussion which informed and directed public opinion. Whilst this is most commonly done to further political ambitions, there are examples designed to further a career for personal gain rather than political power and fame. This is the case with Handley Bathurst Sterndale, born 1829 in India. His oeuvre includes newspaper serials in the Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney) (1871-72); the Daily Southern Cross (Auckland) (1874) and the New Zealand Herald (Auckland) (1877). In this paper his writings will be analysed to show how he created a media persona and gained sufficient credibility that eventually led an invitation to furnish a formal background paper on Pacific Island Trade for the New Zealand Parliament. This in turn led to a partnership with a trading firm which placed him in sole control a Pacific Atoll.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Book Review: Tampke, Jürgen (editor), 'Ruthless Warfare.' German military planning and surveillance in the Australia-New Zealand region before the Great War. Documents edited an introduced by Jürgen Tampke. Canberra, Southern Highlands Publishers, 1998. 5. Journal of Pacific History 35(1), pp. 123-124.
 

1999

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Building a Model Colony. An Overview of the German Period in the Mariana Islands. Presented at Northern Marianas Council for the Humanities History Teachers' Institute 21 August 1999 'The German Era, 1889-1914'. Mangilao, Guam and Saipan: Northern Marianas Council for the Humanities. 40pp.

Booklet setting out the principal historic, social and economic trends during the German colonial rule in the Mariana Islands. The booklet was created as a background document for high school teachers teaching Mariana Islands history.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Centenary of German Annexation of the Carolines. Marshall Islands Journal 30(42), 18.

Article written for the Marshall Islands weekly newspaper describing the German annexation of the Caroline Islands, Palau and the Marianas following the purchase from Spain one hundred years ago.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Centenary of olive processing at Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW: Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Charles Sturt University. 16pp.

Booklet setting out the history of the olivetum and olive production at the former Wagga Agricultural Experimental Farm, now Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga Campus. Describes the olivetum and lists the olive varieties planted there, and summarises the history of olive research carried out at Wagga Wagga.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) A brief history of the introduction of olives to Australia. Olivae(English edition) 77, pp. 22-28.

An illustrated summary of the history of the introduction of olives to the various states of Australia and the role of the olive industry in the agricultural development of the country.
Also published in French, Italian and Spanish:
Brève histoire de l'introduction des Oliviers en Australie. Olivae (Edition Française) 77, pp. 22-28.
Breve storia dell'introduzione dell'oliva in Australia. Olivae (Edizzione Italiana) 77, pp. 22-28.
Breve historia de la introducción del olivo en Australia. Olivae (Edición Española) 77, pp. 22-28.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Downing, Jane(1999). Unmasking transient colonial authors: the case of Handley Bathurst Sterndale. Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin 23(3), pp. 148-163.

Nineteenth century colonial newspapers relied heavily on correspondents and contributions by the general public for special feature articles. While some of these contributions and serials carry by-lines with true names or well-known pseudonyms, the attribution of others is more complicated. This was especially so in the example provided here, an 1871 contribution to the Australian Town and Country Journal, where the author had only spent a short time in Australia and was only a transient resident of Sydney.
Textual analysis provided a number of promising clues that led nowhere due to the author's deliberate attempts at obfuscation in his supposed real life adventures. A systematic verification of all claims and allusions made in the serial through a comparison with contemporary publications which could have served as sources, led to the positive identification of the author: Handley Bathurst Sterndale (1829-1878), well known to Pacific historians as the author of an influential New Zealand parliamentary paper of 1874.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane(1999) Literary Detection: Discovering the identity of a 'Master Mariner'. Margin 47, pp. 8-13.

The paper discusses the process which led to the successful identification of th author a 1870s serialised story published in the Australian Town and Country Journal, a regional newspaper published in Sydney. A systematic verification of all claims and allusions made in the serial through a comparison with contemporary publications which could have served as sources, led to the positive identification of the author: Handley Bathurst Sterndale (1829-1878), well known to Pacific historians as the author of an influential New Zealand parliamentary paper of 1874.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Book review: Medizin und Kolonialimperialismus. Deutschland 1884-1945. By Wolfgang U. Eckart. Paderborn -- München -- Wien -- Zürich, Ferdinand Schöningh, 1997. 638pp, tables, figs, maps, notes, bibliog., index. ISBN: 3-506-72181-X. Journal of Pacific History Vol. 34(2):233-234.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) An Annotated Compendium of German Language Sources on the German Protectorate of the Marshall Islands Vol 1: Bibliography. Charles Sturt University, The Johnstone Centre, Albury, NSW.

A bibliography compiled for the Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office. The indexed bibliography contains 483 entries of German language publications of all fields of science and the humanities, as well as fiction, dealing with the Marshall Islands. All records have been annotated or summarised by the author.[The other 18 volumes of the compilation are photocopy reproductions of the original sources].

 
 

1998

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane(1998) Cyclopean Ruins and Remains on the Caroline Islands. The ruins of Nan Madol and Lelu in the 1860s as seen through the eyes of 'A Master Mariner' MARC Working Papers Vol. 74. Agana: Richard F. Taitano Micronesian Area Research Center, University of Guam.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane(1998) Editing a 19th century serial: from Antiquarian research to boys' own adventure in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report no. 123. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. p. 48.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) The annexation of Eneen-kio (Wake Island, Central Pacific Ocean) by the United States of America. Journal of Pacific History 38(2), pp. 239-247.

The paper details the history of the discovery of Wake Island and the early European utilisation of the island. Against the backdrop of German colonial history in Micronesia the annexation by the United States of America is described and its legality discussed. It is concluded that annexation of the island was probably unlawful, but that with the passage of time the status quo thus established can no longer be undone.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobbis Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. I. Biology and History. Johnstone Centre Report 100. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Japanese poaching and the enforcement of German souvereignty in the Marshall Islands Journal of Pacific History 38(1), pp. 51-67.

In the first decade of the 20th century Japanese plumage hunters visited many of the uninhabited Central Pacific atolls depleting the local bird populations. When a group of Marshallese engaged in traditional birding surprised a group of Japanese on remote Bokak Atoll in 1909, the German colonial administrator was forced to deal with the issue without guidance from Berlin. This paper describes the events and reviews the German actions in the light of similar incidents in Hawaii.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) An officer, yes; but a gentleman.? A biographical sketch of Eugen Brandeis, Military adviser, imperial judge and administrator in the German Colonial Service in the South PacificPacific Island Studies Monographs nª 21. Sydney: University of New South Wales. 87pp.

Biography of the German Colonial Administrator Eugen Brandeis. The book sets out the role of Brandeis in the Marshall Islands addressing his attitudes towards the Marshallese (in the 1902 Mejit Affair), and towards corporal punishment (he was accused of being a 'flogger' in British post WWI cicrles). Brandeis' management of the aftermath of a typhoon (June 1905) as well as his handling of international trade affairs should him to be hamfisted and engaging in brinkmanship.

 
 


Literature & Bibliography
 

2000

Downing, Jane & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (eds) (2000) ReCollecting Albury Writing. Poetry and Prose from Albury & District 1859 to 2000. Albury, N.S.W.: Letao Publishing. xvi, 214 pp, 21cm, ISBN 1 876940 00 X [Contents]

[book blurp]
 


Public Education
 

1997

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Proactive Cultural Heritage Management: "Advertising" options for Pacific Island Countries Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 81. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University.

 


CRM & Education
 

2000

Howard, Jonathon, Mitchell, David, Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Webster-Mannison, Marci (2000) Is today shaping tommorrow for tertiary education in Australia? a comparison of policy and practice. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 1(1), pp. 83-96.

The Commonwealth Government of Australia appears to be moving to environmental education for a sustainable future. Using the new environmental campus of Charles Sturt University in New South Wales as a case study, this paper outlines how one Australian university is providing sustainability in higher education by integrating its designs, operations and teaching practices. In doing so, it shows recent initiatives in the higher education sector and highlights the gap between the what Commonwealth government regards could enhance the national effort and what is happening on the ground.

  Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). Meeting local needs? a study of a communication project established in the Pacific Islands. Public Administration and Development 20(3), pp. 185-195.

The Internet has become a major source and vehicle for technological transfer and project development during the 1990s. Three Pacific Island countries - Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu - were connected through Pactok, an inexpensive computer mediated communications (CMC) system originally developed for non-government organisations through the Pacific Sustainable Development Networking Project (PSDNP). The PSDNP was established by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1993 and funded by UNDP until December 1996.
Content analysis of the Project Document indicated that although the PSDNP aimed to improve access by these countries to scientific and technical information, an important underlying theme was to ensure these Pacific Island countries were connected to the Internet. It also appeared that the agency was keen for organisations in these countries to increase access to international information, with little regard for local and regional sources.
Subsequent analysis of Pactok sites early in 1997 showed that the PSDNP had encouraged the projectŒs primary stakeholders - regional organisations and NGOs - to join Pactok. However, international agencies such as UNDP and other foreign assistance agencies also have access to Pactok, and so be able to disseminate agency ideologies, objectives and priorities directly to users in Pacific Island countries.

  . Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). Getting wired: a Pacific Islands study. Australian Journal of Communications 27(3), pp. 91-105.

The paper explores why people in the Pacific Islands have connected to the Internet. It is based on theories concerning computer mediated communication and the debate between technological and social determinists, and an intermediate approach, in developing and disseminating new technology.
Quantitative and qualitative research was carried out during 1997 in five Pacific Island countries - Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu - which were connected to the Pactok computer communications system. Pactok connections and support in Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu were funded through the Pacific Sustainable Development Networking Project (PSDNP) during 1994 and 1995, while it was established by institutions with little funding suport in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.
Quantitative studies of Pactok sites early in 1997 showed that the PSDNP encouraged regional organisations and non-government organisations to join Pactok., as well as national and international aid agencies. Later surveys, distributed by electronic mail and air mail, indicated that over half of the users were not Pacific Islanders, and that they tended to look outside the region for information sought through Pactok. They also highlighted the predominance of the English language on the Internet.
Lastly, the surveys highlighted major reasons for organisations joining Pactok: to save on telecommunication costs and to contact other organisations outside the region. This was contrary to the objectives of the PSDNP, which sought to connect users to the Internet to help them access technical and economic information for sustainable development.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]

Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a Collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]
 

1999

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Welcome to the global classroom! Teaching in the 3rd millennium. Education at a Distance 13(1), pp. 11-19.

The paper discusses the educational concepts and structural implications for the university sector, posed by the on-line teaching environment. It provides examples and suggests scenarios as to what future universities may look like

 
 

1998

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) On-line study packages for distance education. Some considerations of conceptual parameters. American Journal of education by distance 12(8)

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Montfort, Lesley (1998) Study duration of Post-graduate distance education degrees offered by Australian Universities. Education at a Distance 12(9), pp. 16-19.

Paper reviewing the average duration of graduate diplomas and masters by coursework degrees at Australian Universities. The study found that past-time studied graduate diplomas were completed were completed faster than the expected time frame of cmpletion while masters degree took longer than scheduled. Implications of this are discussed.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Education, National Strategic Reserves and the Australia's budget deficit. Social Alternatives 17(1), pp. 44-45.

 

1997

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Meyenn, Robert J. (1997) Cultural Heritage management and Curriculum Development: Some issues facing Melanesian Nations. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report nª 98. Albury, NSW: Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage. ISBN: 1 875758 63 1

The report looks at the relationship between traditional education as practiced under the rules of 'kastom' for thousands of years and the formal school education system imposed by the colonial powers. This tension has significant implications for a nation's cultural identity as well as the management of the cultural heritage which are inextricably intertwined with the way we approach the education of children.
It argues for a multi-tiered curriculum which allows for the localisation of content and thus the fostering of culture and traditions while at the same time ensuring that the national curriculum aims are being met.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Montfort, Lesley & Fry, Grey (1997) Library use as a generic skill Wagga Wagga: Charles Sturt University, Open Learning Institute. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 22, pp. 35-39. URL: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/OLI/pubs/occpap/no22/papers22.pdf (Adobe Acrobat file)

The School of Environmental and Information Sciences has identified a series of generic skills graduates should possess upon entering the workplace. These skills are not taught separately, but embedded into different subjects. We will review the effectiveness of such skill transfer based on experiences gained in Spring 1996 from the perspective of lecturers and library staff

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Montfort, Lesley & Fry, Grey (1997) Library use as a generic skill in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 26.

Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience in: Michael Wyatt (ed.), Information on-line and on disk '97. Proceedings of the 8th Australasian Information Online and on Disc Conference, Sydney: Information Science Section, Australian Library and Information Association. Pp. 213-230.

The paper discusses the developments of on-line teaching at Charles Sturt University and raises som conceptual parameters that need to be addressed if the system shall be successful

 

Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Why are the Pacific Islands connecting to the Internet? [Abstract] in: Tony Bennett (ed.), Cultural Cross Roads. Ownership, Access, Identity. Abstracts for the Conference 24-26 November 1997., Brisbane: Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy, Griffith University. Pp. 94.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do techno-sceptics use on-campus e-mail?. Campus-Wide Information Systems 14(2), pp. 46-53.

Electronic mail has become all pervasive at CSU. Most of our inter-office communication is conducted via this medium or via WWW announcements. But do students see it the same way? Response times to messages sent to all students enrolled in a subject were measured, which show that some students took more than 80 days to read their mail. The total number of students reading their mail dropped near the end of term, at a time when much use was made of the medium. Little correlation was observed between the frequency of e-mail reading and the final student grade

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) How often do students actually read their e-mail?. American Association for Higher Education AAHESGIT LISTSERV Vol. 17.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW: Open Learning Institute,Charles Sturt University. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, pp. 29-40. URL: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/OLI/pubs/occpap/no21/spenner/index.htm

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do students read their e-mail? in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 23.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Can tutorials modify perceptions? in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 23. in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, 23.

To provide students with the skills and knowledge to understand concepts in cultural resource management and to be able to respond critically to current topics, tutorials were run with two students presenting and arguing diametrically opposed points of view. The attitude of the student population (n=150) to the discussion topics, polled at the beginning of the term, was polled at intervals during the term (one week after the relevant tutorial, after return from mid-session break, end of term). Major shifts in opinion could be observed after the tutorials with small readjustments as time progressed. Most significantly the numbers of 'don't know' answers dropped showing that the tutorial format facilitated idea formation and opinion building. Differences between personalised and anonymous questionnaires could be observed.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Back-up habits of students in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching.

 


This document forms part of the hypertext curriculum vitaeof Dr. Dirk H.R. Spennemann (Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia). If you arrived at this page through a search engine you may wish to call up http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem which will link you to the top of the frame-based CV.