dirk hr spennemann

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2001—2005
Publications by Dirk HR Spennemann
 


Archaeology & Prehistory
 

2002
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and O'Halloran, Charmain (2002) Waste of recreational boating and fishing as a source of archaeological site contamination on the bottom lands of inland reservoirs. Australian Journal of Environmental Management vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 21-26.

A survey found archaeological sites on the bottom of the Hume Reservoir to be contaminated by modern refuse, particularly glass bottles. The debris is deposited by recreational fishermen while the reservoir is filled. The contamination creates two problems: a threat to the integrity of the archaeological record; and a threat derived from well-meaning, but uncontrolled community clean-up operations removing both modern debris and historic heritage items from a site.

O'Halloran, Charmain & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002) Wave Action Impact on Archaeological Sites in a Freshwater Reservoir at Lake Hume, New South Wales. Australian Archaeology in vol. 54, pp. 6–12.

During periods of strong demand the level of water storage is reduced in the Hume Dam Reservoir, exposing Aboriginal heritage sites to wave action. The paper discusses the effects of wave action on normally submerged sites at the bot tom of the reservoir.

 


20th Century Heritage
 

2005
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2005). Is unexploded World War II ammunition abandoned property? A case of ethics and the law in Micronesia. Journal of South Pacific Law vol.9 (2), December 2005 http://law.vanuatu.usp.ac.fj/jspl/current/art3

During World War II the atolls and islands of Micronesia were the focus of military development, extensive fighting and bombardment. By the end of that war the islands were littered with unexpended Japanese ammunition and with US ordnance that had failed to explode on impact. This paper examines the legal and moral ownership of that ammunition, as it has a bearing on its management in the modern historic preservation context. LINK to paper

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Kosmer, Linda (2005) Heritage sites of the US Space Program in Australia: are we managing them adequately? QUEST - The History of Spaceflight Quarterly vol. 12 n? 2, pp. 52-64

Because of Australia's geographical and geopolitical situation, NASA established or utilised a number of space tracking stations on Australian soil. All of the crewed space missions were for part of their orbits controlled from Australian stations, culminating in the landing of the first human being on the moon. While arguably less iconographic than rockets, capsules or launch towers, without these tracking stations mission success and astronaut safety could not be assured. This paper reviews what remains of these stations and how current heritage management in Australia deals with its own tangible evidence of humanity's endeavour to explore space.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2005) The Naval heritage of Project Apollo: a case of losses. Journal of Maritime Research October 2005, www.jmr.nmm.ac.uk/spennemann

For twenty years American astronauts returned from their space adventures by splashing into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It was the US Navy's task to recover them, and their spacecraft, safely and swiftly. To assist in tracking and communicating with the astronauts in space, the Military Sea Transport Service operated a number of telemetry vessels on behalf of the US Navy and US Air Force. While not as spectacular as the activities surrounding the launch of the rockets, the naval component of the US space program of the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo era was instrumental to its success and overall excellent safety record. Historic Preservation is about the intentional, selective preservation of heritage items for the benefit of future generations. This paper reviews which, if any, elements of the naval heritage of the US Space program have been preserved, and which processes have been employed to undertake the selection and assessment .

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) No. 532 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. Observations made during the demolition of the structure. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report n? 102. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) Documenting Tenant Sequences for Properties 526, 528-530 and 532 Kiewa Street, Albury. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report n? 103. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

The report details the tenant histories of the 1970s conversion of the former stables building into a shopping arcade. Photographic docuentation of shops is provided where photographs couldbe sourced.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) No. 528-530 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. Observations made during the demolition of the structure. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report n? 130. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) No. 526 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. Observations made during the demolition of the structure. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report n? 131. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Costs Incurred When Housing Restored Aircraft: Results of a Rapid E-mail Survey of Aviation Museums. Report to the Uiver Working Party, AlburyCity. Albury: Albury City Council and Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Melpomene of the Gardens. A Background History to the Statue of Melpomene in the grounds of the Albury Botanic Gardens. Albury: Albury City Council and Charles Sturt University.
 

2004
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2004). Your solution, their problem. Their solution, your problem: The Gordian Knot of Cultural Heritage Planning and Management at the Local Government Level. Paper Presented at Planning Institute of Australia Conference 2004: Planning on the Edge. Hobart 22 - 26 February 2004. Included on conference CD,

Cultural heritage management is, in essence, a facet of social engineering, whereby physical remains of the past (and present) are selectively preserved pandering to values currently held by the population at large. Indeed, mid- and long-term protection of heritage places can only occur if such places are ‘embraced’ or ‘owned’ by the community. However, public opinion, often coloured by nostalgia, omits, consciously or subconsciously, places that do not fit the present value system. Thus, inevitably there are places, which may be identified by expert opinion, that need to be preserved even if a community is apathetic or even antagonistic. Such differences of opinion allow for conflict to occur. Local planning and the implementation of planning priorities is inevitably caught up in it. The political dimension at the LGA level further complicates matters, particularly as we move from one heritage to a multitude of ‘heritages.’
Over the past decade the management of cultural heritage matters at the local government level has seen the decline of top-down, expert-driven studies, while bottom-up, community-driven, or at least community influenced, studies have increased. Both approaches have their failings and lead to gaps in the record.
Furthermore, all too often heritage plans are limited. Great effort is expended focusing on the historic trends and themes of an area, and on inventorising, evaluating and listing of places deemed worth protecting. Yet next to no effort is spent on implementation strategies, ranging from capacity building within the administering local government to education of property owners, wider stakeholders, the public resident in the LGA and outside visitors.
This paper discusses the pitfalls inherent in these various planning approaches and outlines strategies for LGA-level planning and management to maximise returns from heritage planning projects.

 

2003
 

2002
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and O'Halloran, Charmain (2002) Waste of recreational boating and fishing as a source of archaeological site contamination on the bottom lands of inland reservoirs. Australian Journal of Environmental Management vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 21-26.

A survey found archaeological sites on the bottom of the Hume Reservoir to be contaminated by modern refuse, particularly glass bottles. The debris is deposited by recreational fishermen while the reservoir is filled. The contamination creates two problems: a threat to the integrity of the archaeological record; and a threat derived from well-meaning, but uncontrolled community clean-up operations removing both modern debris and historic heritage items from a site.

 

2001
Lockwood, Michael & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Value conflicts between natural and cultural heritage conservation - Australian experience and the contribution of economics. in: Heritage economics: challenges for heritage conservation and sustainable development in the 21st Century. Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission. Pp. 216-242.

Conflicts between natural and cultural heritage conservation occur across several domains. People disagree over the definitions of terms such as 'natural', 'cultural', and 'wilderness'. There are a range of views on matters of principle, such as whose heritage should be considered, and whether non-negotiable standards should apply to some conservation issues. Clashes of culture occur between various stakeholders: Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, 'mainstream' and minority groups, and amongst professionals from different disciplinary backgrounds. The aspirations and behaviour of traditional owners, environmentalists, recreationists, traditional users, and those who have links with previous uses and sites, can lead to a range of management issues. On public land, management agencies face the difficult task of allocating scarce resources, and are sometimes are forced to decide between natural and cultural heritage. They may also have to address conflicting management objectives.
We discuss each of these domains, and give examples of where such conflicts have influenced Australian cultural and natural heritage conservation. We then identify where economic methods and instruments have the potential to contribute to their resolution. Economics is not very useful for resolving conflicts over definitions, principles, or cultural differences. These matters must be resolved through the various participatory, deliberative, democratic and judicial processes. Economics can be used to justify public investment in heritage management, assist resource allocation and land use decisions, demonstrate the contribution heritage makes to an economy, optimise resource utilisation and establish sound pricing policies for heritage resources. Suitable economic methods for these purposes include non-market valuation and benefit cost analysis, regional economic analysis, cost effectiveness analysis and marginal cost pricing. We suggest education, research and advocacy roles for the AHC in relation to heritage economics and dispute resolution.
  

 
Canning, Shaun and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Contested space: social value and the assessment of cultural significance in New South Wales, Australia. in: M.M.Cotter, W.E. Boyd and J.E Gardiner (eds) Heritage Landscapes: Understanding Place and Communities. Proceedings of the Lismore Conference. Lismore, NSW: Southern Cross University Press. Pp. 457-468.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Lockwood, Michael & Harris, Kellie (2001) The Eye of the Professional vs. Opinion of the Community Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 no 2, pp. 16-18.

Cultural Heritage Planning in Australia is conducted by specialists drawn from various specialist disciplines. Communities are normally only consulted through public meetings are focus groups. This paper summarises the results of a study where all households in a shire where surveyed by mail to nominate heritage places of interest. The findings showed that community perceptions differed from those held by professionals.

 
O'Neill, Jon and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) German Colonial Heritage in Micronesia Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 no 1, pp. 46-47.

Brief article discussing the current approaches to the survival of German cultural heritage resources in Micronesia. The paper identifies the major dissonance between the limited funding and technical expertise available in the countries and the need to prioritise their own indigenous heritage.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Conservation Needs Assessment Vandalised Statue of Melpomene, Albury Botanic Gardens. Johnstone Centre Report nª 199. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

A conservation needs assessment of repair works for the Statue of Melpomene, Albury Botanic Gardens, which had been vandalised. The statue had been pushed off the pedestal and had broke to pieces. This work was carried out pro bono as part of the author's commitment to local heritage issues.

 

 


Anthropology

 

 

2005
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Breadfruit Peelers, old technology but still high tech. Las Conchas (Pacific Conchological Club, California) vol. 37 no 3, p.7.
 


Cultural & Natural Environment
 

in press
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Wiles, Gary J. (in press) A historical attempt to control flying foxes in Samoa with an introduced disease. Australian Mammalogy. 23,

The paper discusses the introduction of avian cholera (haemorrhagic septicemia) to control a fruit bat population affecting fruit tree plantations during the German colonial period of Samoa. The history of the event and the mid-term and long term effects are discussed and compared with other known disease outbreaks among flying fox populations.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & M. John Head (in press) Diachronic changes in the water budget of Fanga 'Uta lagoon, Tongatapu (Tonga, South Pacific): evidence of d13C values in marine shells. Quarternary Geochronology (Quarternary Science Reviews) 17, pp. 1047-1056.

The chronology of the Lapita sites on Tongatapu rests on two bases: a seriation of form and ornament attributes of pottery, and the absolute chronology as determined by radiocarbon dates. Both systems were in disagreement casting doubt on the reliability of the pottery seriation. A re-analysis of the pottery seriation showed this system to be robust. The enclosed nature of the lagoon of Tongatapu, coupled with the dissolution of fossil limestone creates a water reservoir with an apparent age greater than the apparent age provided by the open ocean. A lagoon specific reservoir correction factor was measured using pre-modern reference shells with known dates of collection. When the radiometric dates are corrected using this factor, both chronologies, pottery seriation and radiometric dates are in perfect agreement.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2004) The June 1846 Eruption of Fonualei Volcano, Tonga. An Historical Analysis. Johnstone Centre Report nª 196. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

An analysis of the various historic records of the June 1846 volcanic eruption of Fonualei, Tonga. The report draws on missionary accounts as well as whaler’s logbooks to reconstruct the felt area of the eruption and the dimensions of the ash plume.

 

 


Disasters & Disaster Management
 

2005
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Risk Assessments in Heritage Planning in Victoria and New South Wales. A Survey of the status quo. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management vol. 12 no 2, pp. 89-96.

All conservation management plans written between 1987 and 2003 for heritage properties in NSW and Victoria, as well as all heritage studies completed between 1985 and 2003 for local government areas in Victoria were surveyed to assess to what extent natural disaster hazards are addressed. The results are very discouraging, with less then 10% of such documents making any mention of disaster hazards. The extent to which those studies address the hazards is also very varied. There is much room for improvement if heritage is to have a future in the face of disasters.

 

2003
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003) Risk Assessments in Heritage Planning in Victoria. I: A Rapid Survey of the Conservation Management Plans written in 1997?2002. Johnstone Centre Report no 185. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Review of all Victorian Conservation Management Plans to assess whether the risks posed by natural disasters are assessed and taken into account in the planning process. The results confirm anecdotal information that this is overwhelmingly absent.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003) Risk Assessments in Heritage Planning in Victoria. II: A Rapid Survey of Local Government Area Heritage Management Plans written in 1985?2002. Johnstone Centre Report no 186. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Review of all Victorian Local Government Area Heritage Management Plans to assess whether the risks posed by natural disasters are assessed and taken into account in the planning process. The results confirm anecdotal information that this is overwhelmingly absent.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003) Risk Assessments in Heritage Planning in New South Wales. A Rapid Survey of the Conservation Management Plans written in 1997?2002. Johnstone Centre Report no 184. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Review of all New South Wales Conservation Management Plans to assess whether the risks posed by natural disasters are assessed and taken into account in the planning process. The results confirm anecdotal information that this is overwhelmingly absent.

 
 

2001
Look, David W. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Disaster Preparedness, Planning, and Mitigation. Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 (8), pp. 3-4.

Overview of the contents of the special issue of Cultural Resource Management on cultural heritage and natural disasters.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) The creeping disaster: dryland and urban salinity and its impact on heritage. Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 (8), pp. 22-25.

Dryland salinity, and now also urban salinity, have become the bane of much of rural Australia. The human induced natural disaster is caused by alterations of the water regime of many catchments following either massive land clearing or artificial irrigation. Rising water tables dissolve salts trapped in the rock strata and soil column and create highly saline ground water conditions. Historic buildings, archaeological sites and now entire historic towns several hundred miles inland suddenly face marine decay conditions. Foundations are wetted with extremely saline solutions, archaeological sites till in the ground decay because of seasonal fluctuations of ground water tables. Even though the process is slower than that of most natural disasters, the same problems of disaster preparedness and mitigation occur. Because of the slow onset, however, most communities and heritage professionals are in a state of denial, akin to the social phenomena observed for earthquake preparedness.

 
Hollow, Rosemary. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Managing sites of human atrocity. Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 (8), pp. 35-36.

The paper addresses the management of the remains of sites where human atrocities occurred. Should the traces be removed and a sanitised view b presented or should the places be managed as 'raw' reminders of the past. This issue relates to both human atrocities and to the management of natural disaster sites where human life was lost.

 

 

 


Cultural Tourism & Interpretation
 

in press
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Look, David W. & Graham, Kristy (in press) Heritage Ecotourism in Micronesia : What do Decision Makers expect ?Pacific Tourism Review

A questionnaire was administered to the participants of the first Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium in Micronesia (held between 28 February and 3 March 2000 on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The study looks at the attitudes Micronesian decision makers have towards Heritage Eco-Tourism.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (in press) Establishing context in cultural resources management. In M.Crowe (ed.), Places of Value in the Midst of Change: Evaluation, Treatment and Negotiation in Cultural Resources Management. Proceedings of the National Park Service Cultural Resources Training Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, May 18-22, 1992. National Park Service, Western Regional Office, San Francisco, CA.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (in press) Book review: Making the Invisible Visible. A Multicultural Planning History. Edited by Leonie Sandercock. Berkerley -- Los Angeles -- London: University of California Press. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration.
 

2001
Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds) (2001), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/ Association des Mus?es des ?les du Pacifique. viii, 231 pages. ISBN 982-9056-01-5

A refereed collection of 22 papers dealing with cultural heritage management and cultural interpretation issues in the Pacific.

Over the past twenty years, each of the Pacific Island states has nurtured a rapid evolution in the way it protects and exploits its cultural heritage. Nations do not feel alone: there is often a sense of companionship, from ancient history to experiences in the post-independence era. Urban and other economic development, mass tourism, as well as a new development of a common regional identity, place an increasing strain on the maintenance of each unique heritage. At the same time the increasing volume of overseas visitation allows the host communities to portray their culture and heritage to a wider audience.

While the current situation stimulates the awareness that heritage is in urgent need of management and interpretation, and while there are many successes throughout the region by a variety of players, comparatively little has been written by the stakeholders about the processes and activities they undertake. This book attempts to correct this under-representation.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Neal Putt (2001) Heritage Management and Interpretation in the Pacific. in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/Association des Mus?es des ?les du Pacifique. Pp. 1-10.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Memories, Memorabilia and Monuments: Private, Territorial and Federal Interpretations of the Pacific War in Guam. in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/Association des Mus?es des ?les du Pacifique. Pp. 49-68.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Visitors and their Impact: Protecting Heritage Ecotourism Places from their Clientele. in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/Association des Mus?es des ?les du Pacifique. Pp. 187-228.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Look David W., and Graham, Kristy (2001) Heritage Eco-Tourism in Micronesia. Expectations of Government Officials. Cultural Resource Management 24(1), pp. 30-32.

A questionnaire was administered to the participants of the first Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium in Micronesia (held between 28 February and 3 March 2000 on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The study looks at the attitudes Micronesian decision makers have towards Heritage Eco-Tourism.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Look, David W., and Graham, Kristy (2001) Perceptions of Heritage Eco-tourism by Micronesian Decision Makers. Johnstone Centre Report Vol. 147. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. ISBN 1 86467 077 0

A questionnaire was administered to the participants of the first Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium in Micronesia (held between 28 February and 3 March 2000 on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The study compares the attitudes and expectations of Micronesian decision mak-ers towards Heritage Eco-Tourism at the beginning and at the end of the symposium.

 

 


History
 

In press
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (in press) Traditional Milkfish Aquaculture in Nauru. Aquaculture International in press 2002

Milkfish (Chanos chanos) aquaculture has a long antiquity on the island of Nauru (Pacific Ocean), predating European contact. This paper describes the traditional approaches to acquaculture and puts them into a modern context.

 
O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (in press) German Colonial Heritage in post-colonial Micronesia. Pacific Studies

Micronesia has a long history of colonial occupation: Spanish, German, Japanese and finally US American. Each of these powers has left tangible remains of their occupation and each has influenced the preservation of Micronesian culture. This paper explores the nature of historic preservation of colonial sites and property in a post-colonial world. What are the priorities and what are the constraints for Micronesian countries to manage their colonial past at a time when cultural self-determination has become reality?.

 
Benningsen, Rudolf von (1859 - 1912) The German Annexation of the Caroline, Palau & Mariana Islands. Translated, annotated and introduced by Dirk H.R. Spennemann. Division of Historic Preservation Occasional Historical Papers Series nª 6. Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Division of Historic Preservation.
 

2005
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005). Editor's Introduction to Louis Becke, His Native Wife. Canberra: Mulini Press. Pp. v-xxvi.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Eugen Brandeis in: Fred Ludwig Sepaintner (ed.), Badis?che Biographien Neue Folge 5. Im Auftrag der Kommission für geschichtliche Landeskunde in Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Pp 29-31.

Biographic sketch of Eugen Brandeis, German colonial administrator of the Marshall Islands, written for the Dictionary of Biography for the German State of Baden.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) The Atoll Post of the Eanijen Rakijen in 1909: A Contribution to the Postal History of the Marshall Islands. Berliner Protokolle Heft 75, Juni 2005, pp. 106-116

One of the most intriguing examples of Marshall Islands postal history stems from the German colonial period: handwritten cancellations made by captains of sailing vessels and by postal agents on several atolls. Ever since they were authorised in 1902, these cancellations have been sought after by collectors. Increased publicity of their existence in 1908, coupled with colonial fervour in the general press, created a strong demand among German stamp collectors. It is not surprising that enterprising expatriates in the Marshall Islands provided a philatelic 'service' catering for that market. Some of them, the philatelic literature has claimed, are outright falsifications that never saw real transportation aboard any of the island vessels. This paper will examine in detail the case of one set of these handwritten cancellations, those created in March and April 1909 aboard the schooner Eanijen Rakijen. It will demonstrate that the voyage indeed occurred, and that the cancellations are genuine, albeit most of them of a purely philatelic nature.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Die Atoll Post der Marshall Inseln: Geplante Analyse und Vorl&auum;ufiger Katalog. Berliner Protokolle Heft 75, Juni 2005, 116
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) The wreck of the Libelle and other early European Visitors to Wake Island, Central Pacific. Micronesian Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 4 no 2, pp. 108-122.

Wake Atoll, even though off of the main shipping lines between Hawaii and the Philippines or HongKong had been a navigation hazard in the nineteenth century, largely because it was so low lying and thus hard to see, but also because it position had often been incorrectly reported. This paper details the early European history of the atoll and focuses on a shipwreck and the subsequent salvage events.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2005) Traditional and nineteenth century communication patterns in the Marshall Islands. The Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2 no 1-2, pp. 50-58.

In the atoll world of Micronesia, any traditional communication between the populations within an atoll and especially between atolls relied on sea voyages by canoe. This paper considers the situation in the Marshall Islands, a group of atolls arranged in two parallel chains. The paper sets out the (re-)construction of communications networks based on graph theory and then provides a discussion of the evidence on communications in the early Marshall Islands. This draws together data as diverse as traditional stick charts, known voyages and their durations, as well as linguistics, epidemiology and biogeography. Based on a combination of these data a network model is proposed.

 

2004
Hughes, Sue, Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Harvey, Ross (2004) Printing heritage of colonial newspapers in Victoria: the Ararat Advertiser and the Avoca Mail Bulletin of the Bibliographic Society of Australia and New Zealand vol. 28 no 3, 2004 [2005] 41-61. (NOT INCLUDED IN 2004 REPORT)
 

2003
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003). Usage of Express Stamps on Samoa Times Newspapers. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 19, nª 1, pp. 8–11.

Discusses the presence of, and dates for, Samoa Express stamps encountered on copies of the Samoa Times newspaper.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003). "Timing the Express" Mail Dates of the Samoa Times Express Postal Service. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 19, nª 1, pp. 4–7.

Provides a listing of all ships carrying mail from Samoa between 1877 and 1881 (as reported in the Samoa Times).

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003). Brewers and Lawyers—Sketches of Albury Writers. Albury and District Historical Society Bulletin . n? 425, June 2003, p. 6.

Brief overview of the lives of two of Albury's writers, John Farrell and Walter G. Henderson.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003). Bringing Old Fiction Back to Life—The Publishing Programme of Letao Press. Albury and District Historical Society Bulletin . n? 425, June 2003, p. 5.

Brief narrative of the publishing programme of nineteenth century fiction and literary history.

 
 

2002
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). 'Steam to Tonga and Samoa' The Norddeutscher Lloyd Mail Service 1886 to 1893. Albury, N.S.W. : Letao Press. 37pp. ISBN 1 876940 08 5.

A systematic treatise of the history of the first German steamship connection to Samoa. Steam to Tonga and Samoa discusses the history of the service and its implications on postal and transportation history. Contains the first reconstructed time-table of the steam ship service. The book is extensively illustrated with historic photographs and images of philatelic covers.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). Hialeah Forgeries of G.R.I. stamps. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 2, pp. 46–49.

Paper describing a series of modern forgeries of New Zealand occupation overprints of captured German stamp stock

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). Palm Tree Provisional Government Stamps with German Cancels. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 3, p. 69.

The paper describes a set of Samoan Kingdom Palm Trees stamps cancelled with a German date canceller.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). New Manufacture of Samoa Express, German Samoa and Samoa G.R.I. stamps. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 4, p. 86–93.

An examination and documentation of newly created forgeries of various early Samoan stamps.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). The 1890s Market for Samoan Stamps. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 4, p. 94–98.

A review of advertisements of stamp merchants in the Samoan newspapers of the 1890s, examining the nature an extent of the trade in the stamps of the Samoa Express and Davis Post.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Claghorn, Bill (2002). Fournier Forgeries of the 5 Pence Palm issue of 1893. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 3, pp.66–67.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Claghorn, Bill (2002). Fournier Forgery of an early Apia Date Cancel. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 3, p. 68.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Taylor, A.Lavar (2002). German Postal Services to Likiep Atoll, Marshall Islands. Vorl?ufer. in press

The postal history of Likiep Atoll is discussed, usuing examples of hand cancelled 'Atoll Post' covers, as well as other postal covers.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). Shedding light on the missing years of the Samoan Postal Service 1881–1885. Philately from Australia. vol. 54, nª 4, pp. 93-98.

Discusses the history of the Samoan postal service between the end of the Samoa Times-operated Samoa Express mail service and the beginning of the private post of John Davis. Based on archival sources, this paper is the first serious attempt to illuminate this enigmatic period of Samoan postal history.
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Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). Germany delivered first stamps in Marshall Islands. The Kwajalein Hourglass vol. 42 nª 50, 25 June 2002, pp. 4-5.

The paper describes the German colonial postage stamps made for use in the Marshall Islands and provides some information of German postal history.
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2001
Handley Bathurst Sterndale, My Adventures and Researches in the Pacific. Edited, annotated and introduced by Jane Downing and Dirk H.R. Spennemann. Mulini Press: Canberra
xliv, 327 pages. ISBN: 0 949910 86 4.

Handley Bathurst Sterndale (1829-1878), son of a British indigo planter in India, roamed the Pacific in the mid-19th century. He was marooned on an uninhabited island in the Eastern Pacific, engaged in pearl fishing, and made a voyage from Manihiki (Cooks) to Samoa in an open boat with the notorious "Bully" Hayes, a large New Foundland and a very small poodle. He wrote for newspapers in Australia and New Zealand before his Pacific career ended in a violent showdown while a trader and self-appointed "King" of Suwarrow Atoll in the Cooks.
Sterndale first wrote about his adventures and life, enhanced by fictitious embellishments, in 1871 in a series of weekly instalments for the Australian Town and Country Journal. Although he seems to have destined the work for eventual publication in book form, this never eventuated. Reproduced here in its entirety, Sterndale's series takes us through his experiences, his erudition and his vast imagination. Embedded in his narrative is the first piece of Pacific fiction written from an islanders' point of view.

[book blurp and ordering information]

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) Georg Fritz, A brief biographical Sketch. in: Georg Fritz, The Chamorro. A History and ethnography of the Mariana Islands. edited by Scott Russell. Occasional Historical Papers Series nª 1. Saipan: CNMI Division of Historic Preservation. pp. 103-104.

Brief item presenting biographical data on the first German administrator of the Mariana Islands, Georg Fritz.

 
 

2000
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Aurora Australis. The German Period in the Mariana Islands 1899-1914. Division of Historic Preservation Occasional Historical Papers Series nª 5. Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Division of Historic Preservation.
viii, 247 pp, 5x7 in. ISBN 1-878453-36-X.

[book blurp and ordering information]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Centenary of olive processing at Charles Sturt University. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Charles Sturt University. 16pp. Second edition.

Revised reprint of a booklet setting out the history of the olivetum and olive production at the former Wagga Agricultural Experimental Farm, now Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga Campus. Describes the olivetum and lists the olive varieties planted there, and summarises the history of olive research carried out at Wagga Wagga.  

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Combining science with education: the beginnings of agricultural extension in 1890s New South Wales (Australia). Rural Society 10(2), pp. 175-194.

Agricultural extension started in New South Wales (Australia) with the commencement of the Department of Agriculture in 1890 and the establishment of a body of scientists to answer farmers' queries and to educate farmers in their findings. This paper charts the beginnings of extension and the various concepts developed, highlighting the contributions of Nathan A. Cobb (1859-1932).

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane (2000) Creating a media persona in 19th century colonial Australasia: the case of Handley Bathurst Sterndale. Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin 24(1), pp. 50-67.

The role of regional and colonial newspapers as means of opinion creation and modification is well documented. As is still practice today, editorials and invited/solicited series on various topics created a public discussion which informed and directed public opinion. Whilst this is most commonly done to further political ambitions, there are examples designed to further a career for personal gain rather than political power and fame. This is the case with Handley Bathurst Sterndale, born 1829 in India. His oeuvre includes newspaper serials in the Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney) (1871-72); the Daily Southern Cross (Auckland) (1874) and the New Zealand Herald (Auckland) (1877). In this paper his writings will be analysed to show how he created a media persona and gained sufficient credibility that eventually led an invitation to furnish a formal background paper on Pacific Island Trade for the New Zealand Parliament. This in turn led to a partnership with a trading firm which placed him in sole control a Pacific Atoll.

 
 

2000
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Book Review: Tampke, Jürgen (editor), 'Ruthless Warfare.' German military planning and surveillance in the Australia-New Zealand region before the Great War. Documents edited an introduced by Jürgen Tampke. Canberra, Southern Highlands Publishers, 1998. 5. Journal of Pacific History 35(1), pp. 123-124.
 

1999
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Building a Model Colony. An Overview of the German Period in the Mariana Islands. Presented at Northern Marianas Council for the Humanities History Teachers' Institute 21 August 1999 'The German Era, 1889-1914'. Mangilao, Guam and Saipan: Northern Marianas Council for the Humanities. 40pp.

Booklet setting out the principal historic, social and economic trends during the German colonial rule in the Mariana Islands. The booklet was created as a background document for high school teachers teaching Mariana Islands history.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Centenary of German Annexation of the Carolines. Marshall Islands Journal 30(42), 18.

Article written for the Marshall Islands weekly newspaper describing the German annexation of the Caroline Islands, Palau and the Marianas following the purchase from Spain one hundred years ago.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Centenary of olive processing at Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW: Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Charles Sturt University. 16pp.

Booklet setting out the history of the olivetum and olive production at the former Wagga Agricultural Experimental Farm, now Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga Campus. Describes the olivetum and lists the olive varieties planted there, and summarises the history of olive research carried out at Wagga Wagga.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) A brief history of the introduction of olives to Australia. Olivae(English edition) 77, pp. 22-28.

An illustrated summary of the history of the introduction of olives to the various states of Australia and the role of the olive industry in the agricultural development of the country.
Also published in French, Italian and Spanish:
Brève histoire de l'introduction des Oliviers en Australie. Olivae (Edition Française) 77, pp. 22-28.
Breve storia dell'introduzione dell'oliva in Australia. Olivae (Edizzione Italiana) 77, pp. 22-28.
Breve historia de la introducción del olivo en Australia. Olivae (Edición Española) 77, pp. 22-28.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Downing, Jane(1999). Unmasking transient colonial authors: the case of Handley Bathurst Sterndale. Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin 23(3), pp. 148-163.

Nineteenth century colonial newspapers relied heavily on correspondents and contributions by the general public for special feature articles. While some of these contributions and serials carry by-lines with true names or well-known pseudonyms, the attribution of others is more complicated. This was especially so in the example provided here, an 1871 contribution to the Australian Town and Country Journal, where the author had only spent a short time in Australia and was only a transient resident of Sydney.
Textual analysis provided a number of promising clues that led nowhere due to the author's deliberate attempts at obfuscation in his supposed real life adventures. A systematic verification of all claims and allusions made in the serial through a comparison with contemporary publications which could have served as sources, led to the positive identification of the author: Handley Bathurst Sterndale (1829-1878), well known to Pacific historians as the author of an influential New Zealand parliamentary paper of 1874.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane(1999) Literary Detection: Discovering the identity of a 'Master Mariner'. Margin 47, pp. 8-13.

The paper discusses the process which led to the successful identification of th author a 1870s serialised story published in the Australian Town and Country Journal, a regional newspaper published in Sydney. A systematic verification of all claims and allusions made in the serial through a comparison with contemporary publications which could have served as sources, led to the positive identification of the author: Handley Bathurst Sterndale (1829-1878), well known to Pacific historians as the author of an influential New Zealand parliamentary paper of 1874.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Book review: Medizin und Kolonialimperialismus. Deutschland 1884-1945. By Wolfgang U. Eckart. Paderborn -- München -- Wien -- Zürich, Ferdinand Schöningh, 1997. 638pp, tables, figs, maps, notes, bibliog., index. ISBN: 3-506-72181-X. Journal of Pacific History Vol. 34(2):233-234.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) An Annotated Compendium of German Language Sources on the German Protectorate of the Marshall Islands Vol 1: Bibliography. Charles Sturt University, The Johnstone Centre, Albury, NSW.

A bibliography compiled for the Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office. The indexed bibliography contains 483 entries of German language publications of all fields of science and the humanities, as well as fiction, dealing with the Marshall Islands. All records have been annotated or summarised by the author.[The other 18 volumes of the compilation are photocopy reproductions of the original sources].

 
 

1998
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane(1998) Cyclopean Ruins and Remains on the Caroline Islands. The ruins of Nan Madol and Lelu in the 1860s as seen through the eyes of 'A Master Mariner' MARC Working Papers Vol. 74. Agana: Richard F. Taitano Micronesian Area Research Center, University of Guam.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane(1998) Editing a 19th century serial: from Antiquarian research to boys' own adventure in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report no. 123. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. p. 48.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) The annexation of Eneen-kio (Wake Island, Central Pacific Ocean) by the United States of America. Journal of Pacific History 38(2), pp. 239-247.

The paper details the history of the discovery of Wake Island and the early European utilisation of the island. Against the backdrop of German colonial history in Micronesia the annexation by the United States of America is described and its legality discussed. It is concluded that annexation of the island was probably unlawful, but that with the passage of time the status quo thus established can no longer be undone.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobbis Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. I. Biology and History. Johnstone Centre Report 100. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobbis Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. II. Distances, rate and vectors of seed dispersal. Johnstone Centre Report 101. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Japanese poaching and the enforcement of German souvereignty in the Marshall Islands Journal of Pacific History 38(1), pp. 51-67.

In the first decade of the 20th century Japanese plumage hunters visited many of the uninhabited Central Pacific atolls depleting the local bird populations. When a group of Marshallese engaged in traditional birding surprised a group of Japanese on remote Bokak Atoll in 1909, the German colonial administrator was forced to deal with the issue without guidance from Berlin. This paper describes the events and reviews the German actions in the light of similar incidents in Hawaii.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) An officer, yes; but a gentleman.? A biographical sketch of Eugen Brandeis, Military adviser, imperial judge and administrator in the German Colonial Service in the South PacificPacific Island Studies Monographs nª 21. Sydney: University of New South Wales. 87pp.

Biography of the German Colonial Administrator Eugen Brandeis. The book sets out the role of Brandeis in the Marshall Islands addressing his attitudes towards the Marshallese (in the 1902 Mejit Affair), and towards corporal punishment (he was accused of being a 'flogger' in British post WWI cicrles). Brandeis' management of the aftermath of a typhoon (June 1905) as well as his handling of international trade affairs should him to be hamfisted and engaging in brinkmanship.

 
 


Literature & Bibliography
 

2005
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (ed.) (2005). Louis Becke, His Native Wife. Edited and Introduced by Dirk H.R. Spennemann. Canberra: Mulini Press. xxxvi, 123 pp., ISBN 978-0-9757232-2-7

A critical edition of Louis Becke$)A!/s first novella. While the introduction provides the context of the novella and discusses its importance in the literary career of the author , an appendix provides a critical comparison of all editions.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005). Editor$)A!/s Introduction to Louis Becke, His Native Wife. Canberra: Mulini Press. Pp. v-xxvi.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) The reception of Robbery Under Arms in Albury in 1888/89. Margin no 65, April 2005, pp. 32-35

The paper discusses the Albury connection of the publication history of Rolf Boldrewood$)A!/s Robber y under Arms and describes the reception the book received while Boldrewood was resident in the town.

 

2003
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. O’Neill, Jon G. & O’Neill, Joan (2003) A Rapid Assessment of the Library of the Joachim deBrum House, Likiep Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Johnstone Centre Report 197. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

Extensive private libraries are rare in the tropical Pacific. This holds even more true for libraries established during the late nineteenth century. There was only one such library in entire Micronesia: the Joachim deBrum Library on Likiep. This study describes the library and discusses its management over time, including the challenges faced in conservation management.

 

2002
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002) Literary Albury. A Walking Tour. Brochure, A3 folded to 1/3 A4, 2 leaves with map.
 

2001
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) ReCollecting Albury Writers. Biographical Sketches from Albury and its District. Albury, N.S.W.: Letao Publishing. 20 pp, 21cm, ISBN 1 876940 04 2

Biographical sketches of nineteen writers of Albury and the surrounding communities. The booklet is the first publication of its kind in the region
[Full Text:

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) The Border Post (Albury, NSW) Fiction Index 1856-1885. Albury, N.S.W. : Letao Publishing. ISBN 1 876940 03 4

Founded in 1856, the Border Post was Albury's first newspaper. The range of verse, from doggerel to bush ballads to literary poetry, was a common art form in the mid 19th century. Some of the letters to the editor, as well as some election announcements and even advertisements were expressed in verse. Prose fiction was expensive and was thus limited. This is well reflected in the pages of the Border Post, which focussed on verse over prose in its offerings.
The Border Post (Albury, NSW) Fiction Index 1856–1885 illustrates the wide range of poetry and short fiction offered to the readership, fiction drawn from British, American and Australian papers, magazines and books. The wide scope of the sources used by the Border Post demonstrates the scope of the editors. Far from being a small parochial paper, the Border Post was a major influence shaping the cultural and political development of North-Eastern Victoria and Southern New South Wales.
[Full Text: PDF document, courtesy Letao Publishing]

 
Downing, Jane Jackson, Graham, & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (eds) (2002) New Albury Writing. Poetry and Prose from Albury & District . Albury, N.S.W.: Letao Publishing. softcover, x, 194 pages, 21 cm, ISBN 1 876940 07 7 [Contents]

The Border Region of Albury-Wodonga has a vibrant writing community. This collection of poetry and prose showcases their work. As a companion volume to ReCollecting Albury Writing, it is a snapshot of current writing, with an eye for the future. Established writers, developing writers and young writers are represented in an exciting mix. [book blurp]

Farrell, John (2002) An Iliad of Albury and Other Poems edited by Jane Downing & Dirk H.R. Spennemann. Albury, N.S.W.: Letao Publishing. softcover, xxx, 184 pages, 21cm, ISBN ISBN: 1 876940 06 9 [Contents]

Ephemera is one of the rarest volumes of Australian verse—a single copy is known to exist. An Iliad of Albury and other Poems compiles all poems John Farrell is known to have published while living and working in Albury. This is the first time Farrell's Albury work has been made available to readers since it first appeared in the late nineteenth century. [book blurp]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Mrs. "Rolf Boldrewood's" The Flower Garden in Australia. Margin nª 53, April 2001, pp. 10-21.

The paper summarises the Albury period of Margaret Browne, wife of the police magistrate and novelist Thomas A Browne (aka Rolf Boldrewood), detailing her gardens and exhibitions of flowers at the annual Albury Shows. Towards the end of her 10-year stay in Albury, she published 'The Flower Garden in Australia,' the first Australian gardening book ever written by a woman.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R.(2001) Mary Braddon's novels in the Abury Banner. Albury and District Historical Society Bulletin no. 401 (April 2001), p.3; nª 402 (May 2001), p.3.

Indexing of fiction run by the Abury Banner and Wodonga Express between 1860 and 1900 showed that of all authors serialised by the newspaper the sensasionalist writer Mary Braddon dominated the pages. The article briefly discusses the Albury serialisations in an Australian context.

 
Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) 15.44. Historic NSW Paper (1): The Hume Elector Times. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter nª 15, December 2001.

Brief bibliographic description of newly discovered issues of this hitherto unknown early 20th century Albury newspaper.

 
Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) 15.45. Historic NSW Paper (2): The Albury Herald. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter nª 15, December 2001.

Brief bibliographic description of newly discovered issues of this rare 19th century Albury newspaper.

 
Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) 15.46. Historic NSW Paper (3): The Revolt. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter nª 15, December 2001.

Brief bibliographic description of a newly discovered issue of this rare 19th century Sydney newspaper.

 
Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) 15.47. Historic VIC Paper (1): The Murray and Hume Times. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter nª 15, December 2001.

Brief bibliographic description of newly discovered issues of this very rare 19th century Albury and Wodonga newspaper.

 
 

2000
Downing, Jane & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (eds) (2000) ReCollecting Albury Writing. Poetry and Prose from Albury & District 1859 to 2000. Albury, N.S.W.: Letao Publishing. xvi, 214 pp, 21cm, ISBN 1 876940 00 X [Contents]
[book blurp]
 


Public Education
 

1997
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Proactive Cultural Heritage Management: "Advertising" options for Pacific Island Countries Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 81. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University.
 


CRM, Computing & Education
 

2005
Atkinson, John, Cornforth, David & Spennemann, Dirk H.R (2005) Redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories into cluster computing facilities. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 22, no 4, p. 201-209.

For reasons of equity of access, universities have established computer laboratories for use by their on-Campus students. However an investigation of the utilisation of the computer laboratories at Charles Sturt University found considerable under utilisation of the facilities. This provides an opportunity to re-divert the processing capacity of some or all of these spare computer resources into other projects. Current research indicates the benefits of linking individual desktop computer systems into a cluster computing facility. The paper concludes by outlining the most likely strategy for the development of a distributed High Performance Computing Facility at very little additional cost.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Just how international is my website? Estimating the Reach through Analysis of Hourly Demand. First Monday. Vol. 10 no 12, http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_12/spennemann/index.html

The increased commercialisation of internet domain sales created the unanticipated side effect that domain extensions no longer signify the residence of the domain user. As a result, the analysis of the domain attributes in the web access logs no longer provides accurate information on the origin of the users and thus of the geographical $)A!.reach$)A!/ of a given site. This paper provides an alternative method to assess the geographical $)A!.reach$)A!/ by calculating the average demand for web pages in hourly intervals originating from each time zone. The resulting analysis tool, which relates to Greenwich Mean Time, is location independent and can be applied to websites world wide.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Atkinson, John & Cornforth, David (2005) One reality of the Digital Divide: An exploration of individual computer lab usage at a regional university in Australia. In: Dirk H.R. Spennemann & Leslie Burr (eds), Good Practice in Practice. Proceedings of the Student Experience Conference 5-7th September '05. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Charles Sturt University. Pp. 71-81.

Studies have shown the presence of a digital divide in the community relating to computer access. Universities, eager to embrace the benefits of digital technology, rolled out on-line environments that provided wide-spread benefits, but also potential disadvantages to individuals who were less well off. To mitigate any disadvantages derived from access issues, universities moved to provide free access to computer laboratories. But as IT has become more widespread, the question arose whether that still holds true and whether such provision is still necessary. This study looks at the computer lab use at a regional university in Australia.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. , & Burr, Leslie (2005) Good Practice in Practice: The Student Experience. In: Dirk H.R. Spennemann & Leslie Burr (eds), Good Practice in Practice. Proceedings of the Student Experience Conference 5-7th September '05. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Charles Sturt University. Pp. 1-3.
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) A Multi-Disciplined Community of Scholars. A Johnstone Centre Bibliography 1987-2004. Institute of Land, Water and Society Report no 6. Albury, N.S.W.: Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University
 

2000
Howard, Jonathon, Mitchell, David, Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Webster-Mannison, Marci (2000) Is today shaping tommorrow for tertiary education in Australia? a comparison of policy and practice. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 1(1), pp. 83-96.

The Commonwealth Government of Australia appears to be moving to environmental education for a sustainable future. Using the new environmental campus of Charles Sturt University in New South Wales as a case study, this paper outlines how one Australian university is providing sustainability in higher education by integrating its designs, operations and teaching practices. In doing so, it shows recent initiatives in the higher education sector and highlights the gap between the what Commonwealth government regards could enhance the national effort and what is happening on the ground.

 
Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). Meeting local needs? a study of a communication project established in the Pacific Islands. Public Administration and Development 20(3), pp. 185-195.

The Internet has become a major source and vehicle for technological transfer and project development during the 1990s. Three Pacific Island countries - Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu - were connected through Pactok, an inexpensive computer mediated communications (CMC) system originally developed for non-government organisations through the Pacific Sustainable Development Networking Project (PSDNP). The PSDNP was established by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1993 and funded by UNDP until December 1996.
Content analysis of the Project Document indicated that although the PSDNP aimed to improve access by these countries to scientific and technical information, an important underlying theme was to ensure these Pacific Island countries were connected to the Internet. It also appeared that the agency was keen for organisations in these countries to increase access to international information, with little regard for local and regional sources.
Subsequent analysis of Pactok sites early in 1997 showed that the PSDNP had encouraged the project?s primary stakeholders - regional organisations and NGOs - to join Pactok. However, international agencies such as UNDP and other foreign assistance agencies also have access to Pactok, and so be able to disseminate agency ideologies, objectives and priorities directly to users in Pacific Island countries.

 
Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). Getting wired: a Pacific Islands study. Australian Journal of Communications 27(3), pp. 91-105.

The paper explores why people in the Pacific Islands have connected to the Internet. It is based on theories concerning computer mediated communication and the debate between technological and social determinists, and an intermediate approach, in developing and disseminating new technology.
Quantitative and qualitative research was carried out during 1997 in five Pacific Island countries - Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu - which were connected to the Pactok computer communications system. Pactok connections and support in Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu were funded through the Pacific Sustainable Development Networking Project (PSDNP) during 1994 and 1995, while it was established by institutions with little funding suport in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.
Quantitative studies of Pactok sites early in 1997 showed that the PSDNP encouraged regional organisations and non-government organisations to join Pactok., as well as national and international aid agencies. Later surveys, distributed by electronic mail and air mail, indicated that over half of the users were not Pacific Islanders, and that they tended to look outside the region for information sought through Pactok. They also highlighted the predominance of the English language on the Internet.
Lastly, the surveys highlighted major reasons for organisations joining Pactok: to save on telecommunication costs and to contact other organisations outside the region. This was contrary to the objectives of the PSDNP, which sought to connect users to the Internet to help them access technical and economic information for sustainable development.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]
Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a Collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]
 

1999
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Welcome to the global classroom! Teaching in the 3rd millennium. Education at a Distance 13(1), pp. 11-19.

The paper discusses the educational concepts and structural implications for the university sector, posed by the on-line teaching environment. It provides examples and suggests scenarios as to what future universities may look like

 
 

1998
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) On-line study packages for distance education. Some considerations of conceptual parameters. American Journal of education by distance 12(8)
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Montfort, Lesley (1998) Study duration of Post-graduate distance education degrees offered by Australian Universities. Education at a Distance 12(9), pp. 16-19.

Paper reviewing the average duration of graduate diplomas and masters by coursework degrees at Australian Universities. The study found that past-time studied graduate diplomas were completed were completed faster than the expected time frame of cmpletion while masters degree took longer than scheduled. Implications of this are discussed.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Education, National Strategic Reserves and the Australia's budget deficit. Social Alternatives 17(1), pp. 44-45.
 

1997
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Meyenn, Robert J. (1997) Cultural Heritage management and Curriculum Development: Some issues facing Melanesian Nations. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report nª 98. Albury, NSW: Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage. ISBN: 1 875758 63 1

The report looks at the relationship between traditional education as practiced under the rules of 'kastom' for thousands of years and the formal school education system imposed by the colonial powers. This tension has significant implications for a nation's cultural identity as well as the management of the cultural heritage which are inextricably intertwined with the way we approach the education of children.
It argues for a multi-tiered curriculum which allows for the localisation of content and thus the fostering of culture and traditions while at the same time ensuring that the national curriculum aims are being met.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Montfort, Lesley & Fry, Grey (1997) Library use as a generic skill Wagga Wagga: Charles Sturt University, Open Learning Institute. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 22, pp. 35-39. URL: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/OLI/pubs/occpap/no22/papers22.pdf (Adobe Acrobat file)

The School of Environmental and Information Sciences has identified a series of generic skills graduates should possess upon entering the workplace. These skills are not taught separately, but embedded into different subjects. We will review the effectiveness of such skill transfer based on experiences gained in Spring 1996 from the perspective of lecturers and library staff

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Montfort, Lesley & Fry, Grey (1997) Library use as a generic skill in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 26.
Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience in: Michael Wyatt (ed.), Information on-line and on disk '97. Proceedings of the 8th Australasian Information Online and on Disc Conference, Sydney: Information Science Section, Australian Library and Information Association. Pp. 213-230.

The paper discusses the developments of on-line teaching at Charles Sturt University and raises som conceptual parameters that need to be addressed if the system shall be successful

 
Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Why are the Pacific Islands connecting to the Internet? [Abstract] in: Tony Bennett (ed.), Cultural Cross Roads. Ownership, Access, Identity. Abstracts for the Conference 24-26 November 1997., Brisbane: Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy, Griffith University. Pp. 94.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do techno-sceptics use on-campus e-mail?. Campus-Wide Information Systems 14(2), pp. 46-53.

Electronic mail has become all pervasive at CSU. Most of our inter-office communication is conducted via this medium or via WWW announcements. But do students see it the same way? Response times to messages sent to all students enrolled in a subject were measured, which show that some students took more than 80 days to read their mail. The total number of students reading their mail dropped near the end of term, at a time when much use was made of the medium. Little correlation was observed between the frequency of e-mail reading and the final student grade.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) How often do students actually read their e-mail?. American Association for Higher Education AAHESGIT LISTSERV Vol. 17.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW: Open Learning Institute,Charles Sturt University. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, pp. 29-40. URL: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/OLI/pubs/occpap/no21/spenner/index.htm
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do students read their e-mail? in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 23.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Can tutorials modify perceptions? in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 23. in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, 23.

To provide students with the skills and knowledge to understand concepts in cultural resource management and to be able to respond critically to current topics, tutorials were run with two students presenting and arguing diametrically opposed points of view. The attitude of the student population (n=150) to the discussion topics, polled at the beginning of the term, was polled at intervals during the term (one week after the relevant tutorial, after return from mid-session break, end of term). Major shifts in opinion could be observed after the tutorials with small readjustments as time progressed. Most significantly the numbers of 'don't know' answers dropped showing that the tutorial format facilitated idea formation and opinion building. Differences between personalised and anonymous questionnaires could be observed.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Back-up habits of students in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching.

 


This document forms part of the hypertext curriculum vitae of Dr. Dirk H.R. Spennemann (Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia). If you arrived at this page through a search engine you may wish to call up http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem which will link you to the top of the frame-based CV.