dirk hr spennemann

Floating CSS Menu Css3Menu.com

 
1991—present
Publications by Dirk HR Spennemann
 
List of Publications 1982-1990 not accessible on the WWWW.
in press
in press
Edney, Joanne & Spennemann, Dirk HR (in press) Can artificial reefs reduce impacts on shipwrecks? The Management Dimension. Journal of Maritime Archaeology

Managers have been advocating the use of artificial reef wrecks (ARW) to diversify the experiences of recreational divers and thereby reduce the well-known impact on historic shipwrecks. To examine whether ARW can serve as substitutes this paper discusses the attitude of Australian divers to wreck diving in general and to ARW in particular. While the overwhelming majority of divers surveyed accepted the need for control, the experienced divers were less interested in ARW and less prepared to tolerate controls over their perceived freedom to dive wrecks. We present projections that show that this legacy issue will have largely resolved itself by 2025 due to attrition and natural ageing and propose a permitting system (through zoning) that limits access to ‘genuine’ wrecks those divers that hold specialty certificates with a demonstrated understanding of the historic significance of underwater cultural heritage and demonstrated proficiency in low-impact wreck diving.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (in press) A commercial animal during times of social upheaval: the photographer John Davis in Samoa 1871–1903. In: Anne Maxwell and Josephine Croci (eds), Shifting Focus: Colonial Australian Photography 1850-1920. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Press. Pp. 136–154

The island group of Samoa underwent near cataclysmic changes during the second part of the nineteenth century, when colonial powers competed for influence and control. While the resident photographer, the Australian John Davis, was well placed to observe and record, his commercial livelihood depended on the goodwill of the various players. This paper examines how Davis’ work reflects the political realities of the day and how he managed to run a successful business

Spennemann, Dirk HR (in press) Asterix und das Atomkraftwerk. Bibliographic Forensics of a German Underground Comic. Amsterdam: Stichting Laka, Documentatie en Onderzoeks-Centrum Kernenergie.

¶¶pp. ISBN

Created in Vienna in 1978 by cutting up existing Asterix comic books, rearranging selected panels and adding a new narrative into the speech bubbles. The story of the successful resistance of the Gaulish village that was declared a site for a nuclear power plant resonated with the anti-nuclear movement. Pirated copies were circulation in various German towns even before the first German edition was stopped through legal action by the copyright owners of the Asterix brand. Well over 20 German-language print versions have been identified. The volume was translated and adapted to Dutch, French and various dialects Spanish, incl. Basque.
    Asterix und das Atomkraftwerk is an attempt at a fictional narrative that expresses the concerns of the movement and that also, in its fictional successful ending, signals its hopes. The rapid dissemination of the title in its various forms is a testament to how much the treatment of the topic and sentiments expressed therein resonated in the alternative scene. It also effectively highlights the need among the movement for some comic relief in an otherwise highly intense and serious debate.
    This study describes the print variants in the various languages and provides a chronology of their publication.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (in press) History, Description and Technical Details of the GW Target Aircraft Cameras designed for testing the performance of guided weapons during the Cold War era. vers. 1.0. CAMERA | TOPIA (Albury NSW).

¶¶pp, ISBN 978 1 921220 17 3; DOI:

At a time before the development of real-time electronic data collection, high-speed cine cameras were required to record the behaviour and relative success of missiles to their intended targets. ¶¶. This study provides the history and technical details of these cameras. [PDF document, Full text]

Additional resources:
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2015) Photographic Walk-Around of the Target Aircraft Camera Dekko GW1 Mk 1A. vers. 1.0. [CAMERA|TOPIA] (Albury NSW). 6 pp.
[PDF document, Full text]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2015) Photographic Walk-Around of the Target Aircraft Camera Dekko GW1 Mk 1C. vers. 1.0. [CAMERA|TOPIA] (Albury NSW). 8 pp.
[PDF document, Full text]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2015) Photographic Walk-Around of the Target Aircraft Camera Dekko GW2 Mk 2 Model 2. vers. 1.0. [CAMERA|TOPIA] (Albury
NSW). 6 pp. [PDF document, Full text]

 
2015
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2015) Diachronic Observations of the Decay of a Pisé Building at Jugiong (NSW). Institute for Land, Water and Society Report no. 85. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. 76pp

ISBN 978-1-86-467264-0
This study describes the remains of a nineteenth century pisé building at Jugiong (NSW), and the decay processes that affect it, drawing on a series of observations between 1993 and 2015. The majority of observed impacts are of a climatological nature. Thermal expansion and contraction of the sun-exposed north-facing sides of the walls has led to large-scale erosion. Moisture, in the particular splash impact of raindrops, has undercut the lower sections of walling, destabilising wall segments to point of collapse. The rate of decay is slow and gradual until a catastrophic collapse of wall segments occurs
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2015) Nineteenth Century Indigenous Land Use of Albury (NSW), as reflected in the historic sources. Institute for Land, Water and Society Report no. 83. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University.

ISBN 978-1-86-467262-6
This study summarises nineteenth century observations on Indigenous presence and use in the Albury area. The data have been culled from diaries, contemporary newspapers, maps and other publications. A major section deals with the various manifestations of Mungabareena (station, reserve, ford) and a general discussion of the various crossing places/fords across the Murray River.
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2015) The Disappearing Goanna. Twenty years’ of Accelerated Callus Growth obscuring the Design of A Carved Tree, Mungabareena Reserve, Albury (NSW). Institute for Land, Water and Society Report no. 87. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University.

Iv, 14 pp., ISBN 978-1-86-467267-1; DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3627.1206
During the 1994 NganGirra Festival, artist Darren Wighton carved a goanna into a river red gum at Mungabareena Reserve, Albury. This study compiles pictorial evidence of the appearance of the carving over time and examines the rate of callus growth obscuring the design. Management options are also discussed.
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2015) History, Description and Technical Details of the WREROC missile cameras. vers. 1.0. CAMERA | TOPIA (Albury NSW).

10pp, ISBN 978 1 921220 16 6; DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1014.8968

At a time before the development of real-time electronic data collection, high-speed cine cameras were required to record the behaviour and relative success of missiles to their intended targets. To assess the flight stability and roll behaviour of some missiles, Australia’s Weapon Research Establishment (WRE) developed the WRE Roll Orientation Camera (WREROC), which made use of the recently developed Dixon lens with a 180° field of vision. This study provides the history and technical details of these cameras [PDF document, Full text]

Additional resource:
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2015) Photographic Walk-Around of the WREROC Missile Camera vers. 1.0. CAMERA | TOPIA (Albury NSW) 5pp
[PDF document, Full text]

 
2014
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2014) Keeping it in the family: Land use and cultural cohesion in the colonial German settlements of Southern New South Wales, 1860–1940. Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society vol. 100 (1), pp. 48–68

The Germans who migrated to the Riverina area of Southern NSW in the second half of the nineteenth century provide a useful historic case study to examine how the patterns of intermarriage among an ethnic community persisted and to what degree this is manifested in the selection of land allotments and cohabitation. An examination of parish maps, birth and marriages registers showed that the first locally born clustered spatially and expressed a high degree of endogamy. Endogamy in the second generation forced for marriages to occur further afield. The third locally born generation finally married outside their ethnic boundaries.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2014) 'Vell, I don't call dot very shentlemanly gonduck.' The Portrayal of as ungentlemanly South Seas traders in Louis Becke's short stories. Pacific Asia Inquiry 5, pp. 107–129

The second part of the nineteenth century saw the growth of German economic and political influence in the Pacific. The period of the 1870s to 1880s marked the change from the age of beachcombers to that of organised trade and plantations, a time when much of the colonial map had not been finalized.

Arguably the best Australian author to capture this period is Louis Becke (1855-1913). Himself a trader in Samoa and Micronesia during the 1870s and 1880s, Becke turned ranconteur and writer in the 1890s. His exotic short stories, bringing an unusually realistic perspective to the hitherto romanticized depiction of the South Pacific brought him quick and wide-spread fame, first in Australia and soon after in the United Kingdom and the United States. After his move to London, Becke became, for the popular press at least, the authority on the Pacific. In nine novels and over 400 short stories, Becke’s work depicted the atmosphere of inter-cultural relations, as well as colonial rivalry at the local island and atoll level.

Edney, Joanne and Spennemann, Dirk HR (2014) Can artificial reefs reduce impacts on shipwrecks? Perceptions and motivations held by wreck divers. Bulletin of the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology vol.38, pp. 93–110.
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2014) ‘Albury Banner.’ In: Bridget Griffen-Foley (ed.), A Companion to the Australian Media. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing. P. 17–18

A brief synopsis of the history and importance of the Albury Banner, a major regional newspaper during the second half of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century.

Spennemann, Dirk H R (2014) Silent Sentinels. The Japanese Guns of the Kiska WWII Battlefield. Anchorage, AK: US National Park Service Alaska Regional Office. 28pp
[PDF document, Full text]
 
2013
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2013) Hind-casting the Japanese Military Base on Midway Atoll (Central Pacific). Journal of Conflict Archaeology vol. 8 (2), pp. 136-59

The Battle of Midway was the turning point of World War II in the Pacific. Not only did the battle cost the Japanese Navy four of its fleet carriers, it also thwarted Japanese hopes of establishing a seaplane base there. Midway, in conjunction with another in the Aleutians, was to be the anchor of Japan?s eastern defence perimeter. Drawing on an analysis of the Japanese military base on Kiska (Aleutians) this paper reconstructs what equipment the Japanese had destined to be placed on Midway. A comparison with the well-documented Japanese bases on Micronesian atolls allows us to hindcast the appearance of a base that never was.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2013) Strategy: An Australian World War II-era map-based board game. The Globe: Journal of The Australian and New Zealand Map Society no. 73, pp. 1–15.

Once of the cultural responses to military conflict is to allow noncombatant arm chair strategists to participate in the comfort of their own homes, either through maps following the progress of the war, or through strategic table top and board games. This paper outlines the history of ?Strategy?, the only Australian board game published during World War II that has the war as its focus.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2013) The Robbins & Porter Monoplane of 1913--Statement of significance. Albury: Institute for Land Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. 49pp

The aircraft built in the first half of 1913 by the Albury mechanics Azor Robbins and Alexander Porter is of high cultural significance as it was the first Australian-designed and Australian-built monoplane, fitted with the first Australian-built air-cooled aircraft engine, that actually became airborne and flew.
    In 1911 Melbourne mechanic Azor Robbins, collaborating with Aubrey Locke, developed a flat-four, lightweight air-cooled aircraft engine to power a biplane by local designer Lawrence Marshall. As the engine, Australia?s first air-cooled aircraft engine only delivered 40hp, it was underpowered for the heavy bi-plane and thus was not used. When Azor Robbins and his business partner Alexander Porter opened their motor garage in Albury they decided to use that engine for a monoplane they planned on building drawing on the design of the Bleriot XI and especially of the Bristol P-1. Their aircraft was complete in March 1913 when aviator W.E. Hart visited Albury, and was ground tested from May 1913 onwards at Bungowannah. In late July 1913 the plane flew for a short distance (~ 180m) in a straight line, which however does not qualify for ?controlled powered flight.? Even though Robbins and Porter had foreshadowed ongoing development, this never eventuated, probably due to demands by business and families.
    This document provides a Statement of Significance for the aircraft which is underpinned by an in-depth research documentation. [More?]
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2013) Jean Hector Henri Gambart. A Biographical Sketch. Albury. 32pp

This document is the first compilation of information that could be obtained on the French genre painter Jean Henri Gambart who had several paintings shown in the Paris Salon in the 1890s. This study provides a biographical sketch, limited in its scope by the paucity of data, as well as a catalogue of all works that could be identified from the literature and from a search on published auction results.
[PDF document, Full text]

 
2012
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2012) Interpreting WWII intelligence data for cultural heritage studies. Journal of Conflict Archaeology vol. 7 n? 2, 105132.

Archaeological and cultural resource management analyses of sites of conflict of the recent past regularly draw on archival intelligence sources, in particular on aerial imagery. Like any other data source, they have their limitations. Using a case study, the World War II battlefield of Kiska in the Aleutians, this paper outlines the processes that generated these intelligence resources, as well as the factors that influenced their survival to the present day. Understanding these processes is necessary when using such sources to understand the development of cultural landscapes as well as specific sites.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2012) Rapid Survey of a Subterranean Structure at the Albury Pioneer Cemetery. Report to AlburyCity. Albury: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. March 2012. 28pp

ABSTRACT
[PDF document, Full text]

 
2011
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2011) ?Preserving the Past for the Future.? Contemporary Relevance and Historic Preservation. CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship , vol. 8, no 1&2, 2011 pp. 722.

The heritage management literature of the past decade abounds with statements that expound the aim of historic preservation is to ?preserve the past for the future.? That phraseology has been taken up by many professionals and commercial entities. Recently, it has become entwined with the concept cultural heritage stewardship. This paper examines the nature and theoretical underpinning of these assumptions. It demonstrates that the notion of stewardship for the benefit of future generations is fallible and in fact hinders us in the management of heritage for benefit the present generation.

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2011) The Cultural Landscape of the World War II Battlefield of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. Findings of a cultural heritage survey, carried out in June 2009. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. 552pp.

In June 1942 the Japanese attacked the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, as part of a major strategic offensive in the Pacific. While their main objective, the destruction of the U.S. carriers and the establishment of a seaplane base on Midway Atoll, failed the Aleutian part of the operation succeeded. The Japanese established two bases, one on Attu and one on Kiska, at the western end of the chain. Of the two, Kiska became the better developed, serving as a base for seaplane and midget submarine patrols. For over a year, Kiska was subjected to regular aerial bombardment and occasional naval shelling by U.S. forces that attempted to dislodge the Japanese. Following the re-conquest of Attu by U.S. forces and the subsequent evacuation of the Japanese garrison of Kiska, U.S. and Canadian forces re-occupied Kiska unopposed. To deny the Japanese an opportunity of return, and to potentially use Kiska as a staging point for further operations, the U.S. forces developed a base on Kiska. That garrison was closed after the end of the war. Since the end of the war Kiska is uninhabited.
To recognize the significance of the battlefield to the American people, a large part of Kiska was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1985. Kiska’s WWII importance was more recently affirmed with its inclusion in the WWII Valor in the Pacific National Monument designation of 2008.
Today the island exhibits extensive traces of the war effort, reflecting not only defensive and offensive aspects of the war action but also evidence of the Japanese and the U.S./Canadian base developments. The survey carried out in 2009 and subsequent analysis identified a range of tangible landscape patterns that exemplify the Battle for Kiska and that circumscribe the nature of a twentieth-century battlefield where majority of battle was engagement between attacking U.S. bombers and fighter planes and the Japanese trying to fend off these attacks with anti-aircraft fire and seaplane fighters.
Because Kiska had been essentially uninhabited for over a century before the outbreak of World War II, and because the island has been a (uninhabited) wildlife refuge since the war, these remains and landscape patterns are extremely well preserved. Kiska forms a cultural landscape with a high level of integrity that is arguably unique on a global scale.
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2011) Cameras. In: Delightfully Deco. [Exhibition Catalog] Albury, NSW: Albury LibraryMuseum and Albury Art Gallery. P.4647

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2011) Min(d)ing the Rural History Collection. In: Mining the Collection. Discover Albury?s Hidden Treasures. [Exhibition Catalog] Albury, NSW: Albury LibraryMuseum and Albury Art Gallery. P.12

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2011) The German Colonial Period (1898?1914). In: The Northern Marianas Islands Judiciary: A Historical Overview . Saipan, CNMI: Northern Marianas Judiciary Historical Society. Pp. 725

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR, Clemens, Janet & Kozlowski, Janis (2011) Scars on the Tundra: the cultural landscape of the Kiska Battlefield, Aleutians. Alaska Park Science, vol. 10, n? 1, pp.1621.

The events of World War II transformed Kiska Island in the Aleutians into a cultural landscape that is truly unique on a global scale. Following more than 120 years without human settlement, Kiska was briefly occupied by over 7,000 Japanese troops (June 1942July 1943), and after their withdrawal, by a garrison of 1,200 US troops (August 1943November 1944). After the end of the war it became once more uninhabited and today forms part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. The short burst of heavy military development resulted in a wide range of cultural resources on the island, ranging from midget submarines to aircraft wrecks, from piers to tent sites. This paper describes the resources on the island, discusses their significance on a global scale, and outlines the role and extent of NPS involvement (1986, 1989, 2007, and 2009) in the management of this unique place of our nation?s heritage.

 
2009
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2009) Hindcasting Typhoons in Micronesia: experiences from ethnographic and historic records. Quaternary International (Special Issue: Records of disasters and hurricanes) vol 195, n? 12 106121

Typhoons pose the singlemost serious threat to life on the low lying islands of Micronesia: high speed winds and flying debris wreak havoc with vegetation and artificial structures, storm surges can inundate the small islands and contaminate precious groundwater lenses. The climatological record for typhoons in Micronesia is short (since 1958). The collation of historic sources (published and archival), coupled with the interpretation of extant photographic evidence can be employed to hindcast the nature and effects of past typhoons. Using a typhoon which affected the Marshall Islands of 30 June 1905, this paper outlines experiences from ethnographic and historic records.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2009) On the Nature of the Cultural Heritage Values of Space Craft Crash Sites. Chapter 41 in: in: Darrin, Ann and O?Leary, Beth (eds) Handbook of Space Engineering, Archaeology and Heritage. London: CRC Press. Pp. 781800

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2009) Water Futures and their Influence on Sovereignty in the Marshall Islands. In: Heather Goodall, Devleena Ghosh & Stephanie Hemelryk Donald (eds) Water, Sovereignty and Borders in Asia and Oceania, London: Routledge, pp. 5071.

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2009) Tattooing in the Marshall Islands. Honolulu: Bess Press

In most Pacific Island cultures tattooing was a means of visually demonstrating rank and status within a community. In Micronesia tattooing also served to clearly mark out its wearer as a member of one island population and thereby differentiate them from people from other islands. This book provides a comprehensive overview on traditional tattooing in the Marshall Islands. Drawing on a wide range of sources it documents the nature and history of individual tattoo motifs and their combinations and places them into a cultural context.

Hughes, S., Lunt, I.D., Spennemann, D. H. R (2009) Making sense of the ?Rabbit Acts?: An exploration of the efficacy of historic law in controlling an environmental catastrophe. First World Congress of Environmental History "Local Livelihoods And Global Challenges: Understanding Human Interaction With The Environment" Copenhagen, Denmark & Malm?, Sweden, August 48, 2009.

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Murphy, Guy (2009) Failed Mars Mission Landing Sites: Heritage Places Or Forensic Investigation Scenes? Chapter 23 in: Darrin, Ann and O?Leary, Beth (eds) Handbook of Space Engineering, Archaeology and Heritage. London: CRC Press. Pp. 457?479.

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2009) Ships and Shipping in the German Mariana Islands 18991914. Report prepared for the CNMI Historic Preservation Office. Albury, NSW

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2009) The Remains of a Japanese Plane at Salmon Lagoon, Kiska Island, Aleutian Chain, Alaska. Identification and Condition Assessment. Report prepared for the US National Park Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. 73pp

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2009) The Market for Japanese WW II Aircraft Memorabilia. A Rapid Appraisal of Online Auctions in June and July 2009. Report prepared for the US National Park Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Albury, NSW: Heritage Futures International. 20pp

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2009) Tattooing in the Marshall Islands. Honolulu: Bess Press

In most Pacific Island cultures tattooing was a means of visually demonstrating rank and status within a community. In Micronesia tattooing also served to clearly mark out its wearer as a member of one island population and thereby differentiate them from people from other islands. This book provides a comprehensive overview on traditional tattooing in the Marshall Islands. Drawing on a wide range of sources it documents the nature and history of individual tattoo motifs and their combinations and places them into a cultural context.

 
2008
Laidlaw, Prue, Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, Catherine (2008) Protecting cultural assets from bushfires: a question of comprehensive planning. Disasters vol. 32 n? 1, pp. 6681.

Cultural heritage sites form an unrenewable asset that is threatened by natural disasters. Given the high bushfire risk, mandatory Bush Fire Risk Management Plans are drawn up throughout New South Wales. The mandatory provisions for the protection of heritage assets of all plans were compared against an ideal minimal Heritage Disaster Plan which contains a series of nonnegotiable elements. The examined plans were found to fall well short. Preparedness plans generally lacked discussions of suppression techniques (for historic heritage), prevention, prescribed drills and communication procedures. None of the Response Plans or Recovery Plans contained any of the required core elements (such as rapid suppression techniques, stabilisation procedures etc). Where aspects were covered, they were addressed in an inadequate level of detail. The overall quality of the cultural heritage components of the plans is judged to be poor. Suggestions are made on how to improve the situation if heritage assets shall have a future during bushfire events.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2008) Luta: I Tiempun Aleman. Rota as seen through German Eyes 18991914. Albury, NSW: {retro|spect}. 21 cm, iv, 135pp, ISBN 978 1 921220 05 0. Print run: 500 copies.

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Black, Rosemary (2008) Chasing the 'fat' ? chasing a ?fad?? The waxing and waning of tourism and tourismrelated courses in Australian higher education. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education vol. 7 n? 1. www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/hlst/documents/johlste/vol7no1/penneman.pdf

This paper discusses the development of tourism and ecotourism degrees in Australia in relation to Commonwealth government higher education policies. The deregulation of the higher education sector and the national competition policy, combined with decreases in government funding has resulted in increased competition for niche market degrees like ecotourism . The oversupply of study places has led to quick economic returns, but ultimately saturated the market and the decline and subsequent abolition of many degrees. Based on data gained from various Australian tertiary admission centres this paper argues that the increased competition for students between institutions is not in the national interest.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & O?Neill, Jon G. (2008) A Library in Paradise: the deBrum Library on Likiep (Micronesia). Script and Print vol. 31 n? 3, pp. 135146.

During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the island world of Micronesia was devoid of libraries, with the exception of a private library established by the PortugueseMarshallese Joachim deBrum on the semiremote atoll of Likiep in the Marshall Islands. The article traces the origin and development of the library and comments on its composition.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Sutherland, Gaye (2008) Late Nineteenth Century German Immigrant landand stockholdings in the Southern Riverina: an exploration of largescale spatial patterns. Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society vol. 94 n? 1, pp. 7490.

The paper examines the largescale spatial patterns of settlement by German Immigrants in the Southern Riverina during the late nineteenth century.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2008) Echoes of the German Experience. Objects from the Jindera Pioneer Museum. Albury: {retro|spect} 32pp. ISBN 978 1 921220 09 8

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska I., Aleutians, Alaska. The 6inch Gun Battery on Little Kiska Island. (Report Kiska #4) Documentation and Condition Report. November 2008. Documentation prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia 209pp

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska I., Aleutians, Alaska. The 6inch Gun Battery on North Head, Kiska Island. (Report Kiska #5) Documentation and Condition Report. November 2008. Documentation prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia. 95pp

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska Island, Aleutians, Alaska. 120mm Dual Purpose Gun Battery on North Head, Kiska Island. (Report Kiska #3) Documentation and Condition Report. Documentation prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia. 128pp

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska Island, Aleutians, Alaska. The 4.7inch Battery on North Head, Kiska Island. (Report Kiska #2) Documentation and Condition Report. October. Documentation prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia. 134pp

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska I., Aleutians, Alaska. Conservation Management Plan. (Report Kiska #1) Study prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. December 2008. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia. 396pp

ABSTRACT

2007
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) ?Gedruckt in Samoa?. A bibliographic Analysis of the Samoanisches Gouvernements Blatt and other Printing in German Samoa (1901?1914). Albury, NSW: {retro|spect}. 21cm, xii, 174 pp. ISBN 978 1 921220 05 0

Germany was a relative latecomer on the colonial scene. While the impact and legacy of the German colonial experience in Africa, China and the South Pacific has been examined by historians, few studies exist which try to assess the nature of newspaper publishing in the German colonies. What exists are very general overviews or a well repeated discussion of a specific event, namely as the conflict between the press and the colonial administration in German East Africa. The Pacific has been ignored in this regard.
The present study of the publication output of the Samoanische Zeitung breaks new ground in two aspects. It is the first of its kind dealing with the situation in the German Pacific, and it is the first of its kind that tries to look holistically at the entire publication output of a single publisher.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) GermanLanguage Books in Jindera. An illustrated Catalogue of Items held by the Jindera Pioneer Museum. Albury, NSW: {retro | spect}. 25 cm, x, 147 pp. ISBN 978 1 921220 02 9

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) GermanLanguage Books in Jindera. An illustrated Catalogue of Items held by the Jindera Pioneer Museum. Albury, NSW: {retro | spect}. 25 cm, x, 147 pp. ISBN 978 1 921220 02 9

A bibliographic analysis of a collection of German language books held by the Jindera Pioneer Museum. Noteworthy among them are one sixteenth and three seventeenth century religious texts. The study also traces the origins of the books, compiles background on the booksellers that supplied them, and from there develops a conceptual framework for the acquisition and retention of books by the German immigrant community.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) A Baunscheidt Homeopathic Medicine Kit in the Jindera Pioneer Museum. Studies in German Colonial Heritage (ISSN 18347797) n? 4, pp. 188

Baunscheidtism was a homeopathic skin irritation and exanthematous eruption method that rose to worldwide popularity during the early part of the second half of the nineteenth century. While the method was particularly popular in Germany, where it had been invented, important centres developed among German populations in Ohio in the USA as well as in Switzerland and Russia. Baunscheidt sold a kit that contained the tool (?Lebenswecker?) as well as a bottle of oil and a handbook. As result of his success the instrument, as well as the oil, were imitated widely, both in Germany and overseas, especially in the USA. This study is the first of its kind to compile details on make up and appearance of the known original Baunscheidt Lebenswecker as well as its imitations. A discussion of the proprietary oil, as well as of the various editions of Baunscheidt?s handbook is also given. An assessment of the cultural significance of the homeopathic kit rounds out the study.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) The Imagery of Postcards sold in Micronesia during the German Colonial Period. Berliner Protokolle 87, June 2007, pp. 73102

Reprint of the paper that first appeared as a refereed paper in Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5, n? 12 pp. 345374.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Introduction. In: Richard Overell, The Pacific. An exhibition of material from the Monash University Library Rare Books Collection 27 September 2007 29 February 2008. Melbourne: Monash University Library. Pp. iii

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Imperial German Legislation regarding the Marshall Islands (18861914). Australian Law Librarian vol. 15, n? 2, pp. 1517

After the proclamation of the protectorate of the Marshall Islands, the Imperial German administration put into place an array of provisions to give effect to the new colonial rule. This paper discussed the nature and extent of colonial legislation specifically promulgated for the Marshall Islands and provides a coarse grained analysis of the chronology of legislative activity.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Digital Futures for Law Resources in Micronesia. Australian Law Librarian vol. 15, n? 2, pp. 713

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Secondary use of artefacts and the development of a new historical context: an example of the jet age. Studies in Contemporary and Emergent Heritage (ISSN 18344208) n? 1, pp. 16

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Mapping the German Footprint in the Riverina in 1884. Studies in German Colonial Heritage (ISSN 18347797) n? 2, pp. 19

This study documents in the form of maps the nature of German settlement in the Southern Riverina as far as it can be gleaned from the 1884 census of land and stockholders.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Orbital, Lunar and Interplanetary Tourism: Opportunities for Different Perspectives in Star Tourism. In: Proceedings of International Initiative in Defence of the Quality of the Night Skies as Mankind?s Scientific, Cultural and Environmental Right to observe the Stars. La Palma (Tenerife). April 1920, 2007. Tenerife: Instituto de Astrof?sica de Canarias. Pp. 163175.

By necessity, current star tourism is an outward looking, Earthbound and geocentric opportunity with the observer?s window to the skies constrained by his/her location. The emergent area of space tourism offers to remove such constraints. Moreover, as it visually and experientially places Earth into the context of other planets, space tourism will provide the tourist with a literally different perspective. .

While the proposed orbital (mass) tourism will provide a brief orbital experience, it is still largely focused on weightlessness and the opportunity of seeing Earth from orbit. Despite this, it will offer the tourist brief opportunities for viewing stars from a different point of view. True Space Tourism, be it 'real' (through tourists in space) or virtual (via payperdrive remote controlled rovers), moves from a geocentric opportunity spectrum to one that provides views of Earth in space as part of a suite of offerings that encompasses views of planets and stars wholly unencumbered by atmospheric disturbances that plague an observer on Earth, and also unencumbered by constraints of the spatial positioning of the observer in relation to the sector of the universe viewed (as the viewing platform either orbits or is geostationarydepending on design intent). Space Tourism will, eventually, also provide access to the lunar and planetary surfaces (eg Mars) providing additional perspectives.
This paper reviews various proposed scenarios of orbital, lunar and interplanetary tourism and examines the opportunity spectra each these provide for star tourism.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) ?The Enemy from Below" Assessing Salinity Risk when Managing the Future of our Historic Building Stock. Proceedings of the 2007 Urban Salinity Conference. Bicentennial Park Homebush Bay, New South Wales May 2223, 2007. Sydney: Western Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils. Online. http://www.wsroc.com.au

Urban salinity is an increasing problem that shows little prospect of abating any time soon. When most of our historic building stock was erected some 30, 50 or 100 years ago, the builders did not have to content with high water tables. As result, many structures today lack damp proof courses, making them particularly vulnerable to salinity attack. Depending on the building materials used this impact can be very severe, potentially threatening a structure?s very longterm survival. As our historic building stock defines many regional and rural communities by circumscribing their history and cultural identity, any loss of historic fabric is deplorable at the least and devastating at worst. This paper outlines the underlying physical processes that lead to salt attack and how salinisation of buildings can be detected. The second part of the paper will review some of the available conservation treatments and will discuss what we know about the longterm viability of such treatments

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2007) Futurist rhetoric in us historic preservation: A review of current practice. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing. Vol. 4, n? 12, pp. 9199.

Historic Preservation is an inherently retrospective discipline. The evaluation of the tangible manifestations of the cultural environment surrounding us is solely based on hindsight. At the same time the heritage profession has espoused a futurist stance by arguing that the heritage sites need to be managed and preserved in a spirit of altruistic stewardship for the benefit of future generations. This paper examines the notion of ?preserving the past for the future?, will assess its ubiquity of the phraseology and attempt to trace its origins and diachronic development. It will posit that the steep rise in popularity of futurist positioning statements, titles of publications and slogans on heritage posters is connected with a public perception of uncertainty about the present and the immediate future, and a concomitant ?flight? into the largely nostalgic perception of the past.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) The Opportunities for Star Tourism as a Motivation for Space Tourism. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. Vol. 60, n? 11, pp 414418.

By necessity, current star tourism is an outward looking, Earthbound and geocentric opportunity with the observer's window to the skies constrained by his/her location. The emergent area of space tourism offers to remove such constraints. Moreover, as it visually and experientially places Earth into the context of other planets, space tourism will provide the tourist with a literally different perspective. While the selling point of suborbital tourism is still largely focused on weightlessness and the opportunity of seeing Earth from orbit, it will also offer the tourist brief opportunities for viewing stars from a different point of view. Orbital, lunar and planetary tourism, be it 'real' (through tourists in space) or virtual (via payperdrive remote controlled rovers), moves from a geocentric opportunity spectrum to one that provides views of Earth in space as part of a suite of offerings that encompasses views of planets and stars wholly unencumbered by atmospheric disturbances, and also unencumbered by constraints of the spatial positioning of the observer in relation to the sector of the universe viewed. This paper reviews various proposed scenarios of orbital, lunar and interplanetary tourism and examines the opportunity spectra each these provide for star tourism.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) A Line in the Sand? Explorations of the Cultural Heritage Value of Hominid, Pongid and Robotid Artefacts. International Journal Cultural Property vol 14 n? 2, pp. 241266.

Although cultural heritage management is an inherently retrospective discipline, there is a need for strategic forward thinking. Too many valuable heritage places have been lost because they are not recognised and assessed in time. This paper takes strategic thinking in cultural heritage management one step further and addresses the management of artifactual material created by our closest relatives, the Great Apes. Given the increasing understanding that Chimpanzees have cultures and traditions in tool use, there is a need to recognise their heritage value in reference to human evolution.
Expanding the concept of nonhuman heritage into the future, it is now also time to explore how we are going to deal with the artefacts that the first artificial intelligenceimbued, selfreflecting robots will create. By extension, we need to consider which artefacts will be kept along the way. The contemplation of the role of nonhuman heritage will ultimately foster a reappraisal of human heritage. The paper outlines some of the conceptual issues that need to be addressed if our heritage is to have an ethical future.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Extreme Cultural Tourism: From Antarctica to the Moon. Annals of Tourism Research vol. 34 n? 4, pp 898918

Humanity has an affinity for adventure and discovery. History has shown that places previously deemed out of reach have been visited and that in the wake of intrepid individuals follow an adventurous few and finally that segment of the general tourist population that can afford it. Thus increasingly remote heritage places have come under threat from visitation. It is time to consider the implications of future visitation of heritage sites on the lunar surface. While ecotourism principles can be espoused on Planet Earth, the mere visitation of lunar landing sites if the Apollo program can diminish their heritage value.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) An Integrated Architecture for successful Heritage Site Management Planning. CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship vol. 4 n? 2, pp. 1828.

In current practice, planning for Heritage Site Management is a fragmented effort. All too often, completed conservation management plans outdate quickly and then sit on the shelf unrevised. This paper sets out a model architecture for an integrated Heritage Site Management Plan that addresses all aspects involved in managing a heritage site. Through its modular approach the plan architecture allows plans to be addressing a site?s unique needs while maintaining currency through stratified review cycles.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Gender bias after death: the case of the clergical cemetery, St. John?s Orphanage, Thurgoona, NSW, Australia. Journal of International Women?s Studies vol. 8 n? 4, pp. 6078.

Cemeteries are commonly seen as reflective of the historic environment in which they were created and therefore form a unique interpretive tool for the cultural heritage manager. As this case study of clergical cemetery documents, physical heritage of a cemetery may well reflect the power hierarchy at the time, but it does not accurately reflect the historic reality. The effective manipulation of the tangible evidence left behind for future generations has effectively enshrined a gender bias in perpetuity.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Of Great Apes and Robots: Considering the Future(s) of Cultural Heritage. Futures?The journal of policy, planning and futures studies vol. 39 n? 7, pp. 861877.

Because cultural heritage management is an inherently retrospective discipline, too many valuable heritage places have been lost because they are not recognised and assessed in time. This paper advances strategic thinking in cultural heritage management by addressing two onthehorizon and overthehorizon issues: the management of artefacts created by our closest relatives, the Great Apes; and the management of artefacts created in the future by the first artificial intelligenceimbued, selfreflecting robots. .

Given the increasing understanding that Chimpanzees have cultures and traditions in tool use, there is a need to recognise their heritage value in reference to human evolution. Likewise, it is now also time to explore how we are going to deal with the nonhuman, robotid artefacts. Te contemplation of the role of nonhuman heritage will ultimately foster a reappraisal of human heritage. The paper outlines some of the conceptual issues that need to be addressed if our heritage is to have an ethical future.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) The Futurist Stance of Historical Societies: An analysis of positioning statements. International Journal of Arts Management vol. 9 n? 2, pp. 415.

Historical societies are not known for their proactive stance. In the public perception they are retrospective, often parochial and adverse to change. The advent of the World Wide Web in the mid1990s has made these societies more visible and more accessible to a nonlocal audience. The historical societies have responded by developing position statements to market their ?services.? To project a sense of agency, many societies draw on phrases such as ?preserving the past for the future,? signalling a vision. This paper surveys the futurist stance embodied in position statements and explores their implications for the underlying ideologies of the historical societies. The investigation reveals a discrepancy between the mission statements and the progressive stance of the ?tagline.? This story of futurist positioning is a cautionary tale for any arts industry tempted to jump on a bandwagon.

Les soci?t?s d?histoire ne sont g?n?ralement pas reconnues pour leurs positions proactives. Elles sont per?ues par le public comme ?tant uniquement tourn?es vers le pass?, souvent chauvines et r?fractaires au changement. L?av?nement d?Internet, au milieu des ann?es 90, leur a permis de devenir plus visibles et plus accessibles ? un public non local. Elles en ont profit? pour d?velopper des ?nonc?s de positions qui feraient la promotion de leurs ? services ?. Pour projeter l?image d?acteurs responsables, de nombreuses soci?t?s recourent ? une phras?ologie telle ? pr?server le pass? pour le futur ?, indiquant ainsi une vision. L?article examine l?aspect futuriste d??nonc?s de position et explore son influence sur les id?ologies sousjacentes des soci?t?s d?histoire. L??tude r?v?le un ?cart entre les ?nonc?s de mission et l?affirmation progressiste de la ? signature ?. Cette histoire de positionnement futuriste devrait amener ? r?fl?chir toute industrie du secteur des arts tent?e de suivre le mouvement.

Velthuis, Kirsten & Spennemann, Dirk HR (2007) The future of Defunct Religious Buildings: Dutch Approaches to their Adaptive Reuse. Cultural Trends vol. 16 n? 1, pp. 4366.

Across the western world membership in the established organized churches is on the decline with a concomitant reduction in the need for churches and church halls. As redundant and unused churches are the focus of vandalism and decay owners and heritage managers are looking for options to adaptively reuse such buildings. This paper reviews the literature on the reuse of churches in the Netherlands, which has long history of innovatively addressing the problems. The options available range from reuse for religious purposes by other denominations or faiths to community use (multipurpose, sport, music etc) and private use either commercial or residential. The attitudes of the community and the original property owners have a major role in which adaptive reuse is successful. Because of its long history, the Dutch experience in adaptive reuse of religious buildings has much to offer heritage managers in other countries just faced with this emergent management issue.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Tetov?n? na Marshallovych Ostrovech (?The Tattoos of the Marshall Islands?). Sowulo Press (Zdar nad Sazavou, Czech Republic).

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007). Melimel. The Good Friday Typhoon of 1907 and its aftermath in the Mortlocks, Caroline Islands. Albury, NSW: {retro|spect}. 21 cm, iii, 27 pp, ISBN 978 1 921220 07 4

A historic narrative of the effects of the Good Friday Typhoon on the eastern Caroline Islands. The book outlines the destruction wrought on the settlements and the environment, and outlines the actions taken by the Imperial German colonial administration to alleviate the suffering of the population. In part this entailed large-scale relocation of people first to Pohnpei and from there to Saipan.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Edge of Empire. The German Period in the Mariana Islands 1899?1914. Albury, NSW: {retro|spect}. 21 cm, ii, 394 pp., ISBN 978 1 921220 04 3

Imperial Germany?s colonial experience in Micronesia was only brief, but left a lasting impact on the communities it ruled. During a fifteen year period, between the Spanish American War of 1898 and the early days of World War I in October 1914, a handful of German colonial administrators initiated educational, economic and social policies that were to have a significant impact on the Northern Mariana Islands. Compulsory schooling with instruction in Chamorro and Carolinian, private land ownership limited to Chamorro and Carolinians (excluding even Germans!), homesteading programs and environmental protection are only some of the German initiatives that were both innovative and unique though the colonial Pacific.

Edge of Empire is an indepth study of Germany?s colonial rule in the Northern Mariana Islands. Drawing upon an extensive body of German colonial records, the book thoroughly examines the various facets of the legacy of this brief but significant chapter in the history of the Northern Mariana Islands

Laidlaw, Prue, Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, Catherine (2007) No time to de(con)struct: The Accessibility of Bush Fire Risk Management Plans in New South Wales, Australia. Australian Journal of Emergency Management vol. 22 n? 1, pp. 5?17.

Cultural heritage assets define our culture, providing a sense of place and emotional anchorage in space and time. As such they are regarded as assets worth protecting during disasters, including bushfires. Fire can damage cultural heritage assets through flames and radiant heat, and via inappropriate fire suppression activities during and immediately after a fire. Good planning can provide for the protection of cultural heritage assets during bushfires, but the information within the plans must be easily understood. This paper considers the accessibility of the information related to cultural heritage assists in all available NSW district bush fire management plans. Reading ease and reading age formulae were applied to each plan, and content analysis was used to explore the terminologies used, and the style in which the information was presented. The information regarding cultural assets in the plans was found to be difficult to read, replete with obscure terminology, and sometimes rambling and irrelevant; in short very inaccessible, especially in the high stress environment of a bushfire. The paper concludes with advice on improving the accessibility of these bush fire management plans, advice which will be equally applicable to other disaster plans which consider the protection of cultural heritage assets.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Graham, Kristy (2007) The importance of heritage preservation in natural disaster situations. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management vol. 7, n? 67, pp. 9931001.

Disaster management for cultural heritage has been gaining recognition as an important issue for the long term management and conservation of these assets. Natural disasters are localised events and have the ability to cause widespread loss and destruction to a community?s cultural heritage. The social benefits of heritage preservation are often cited as the justification for developing disaster management plans. These social benefits are generally presented in relation to the disaster recovery phase. However, these benefits are also attributable to the initial stages experienced during a disaster event. Applying these existing arguments to this initial stage may assist to transcend the existing attitudinal barriers and present the issue of disaster management for cultural heritage in a manner which is relevant to the diversity of stakeholders.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Meyenn, Bob (2007) Cultural Heritage Management and Curriculum Development in Melanesia DomoDomo (Suva) vol. 20, n? 12, pp. 3753

The paper looks at the relationship between traditional education as practiced under the rules of 'kastom' for thousands of years and the formal school education system imposed by the colonial powers. Tensions between these approaches have significant implications for a nation?s cultural identity as well as the management of the cultural heritage which are inextricably intertwined with the way we approach the education of children.
We argue for a multitiered curriculum that allows for the localisation of content and thus the fostering of culture and traditions while, at the same time, ensuring that the aims of national curricula are met.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Sutherland, Gaye (2007) Archaeological Survey of the Former Japanese Agricultural Research Station at Pwunso, Kolonia, Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia. Report prepared for the Historic Preservation Office of Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia and the National Historic Preservation Office, Federated States of Micronesia. Final Report. ILWS Report N? 29. January 2007. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. 254pp

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. Cornforth, David; & Atkinson, John (2007) A choice of terminals: spatial patterning in computer laboratories. Campuswide Information Systems vol. 24 n? 2, pp.7696.

Previous research of the use of computer laboratories in schools and universities has focussed on educational issues. None of the studies so far have considered matters of situational territoriality and spatial patterning that govern human behaviour.
By assessing the user behaviour in 16 computer laboratories at a regional university in Australia, this paper will examine the spatial patterns of student use of machines in each laboratory to whether there are underlying commonalities. The study found that computers within easy access to doors are disproportionately more used than computer that are further away, irrespective of other ?incentive? such as windows, wall anchoring or security camera positioning. This paper has implications for any division within a university environment responsible for the spatial positioning of computer in a student laboratory.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Atkinson, John, & Cornforth, David (2007) Voting with their Seats: Computer Laboratory Design and the Casual User. Behaviour and Information Technology vol. 26 n? 5, pp. 409 420

Student computer laboratories are provided by my most teaching institutions around the world however what is the most effective layout for such facilities? The login data files from computer laboratories at a regional university in Australia were analysed to determine whether there was a pattern in student seating. In particular it was investigated whether students and academic staff usage was affected by the layout of a computer laboratory and therefore a preference by students in where they were seated. It was found that the layout of the computer laboratories does not affect which computer layout that a student will use. Further it was found that academic staff prefer to use a computer laboratory designed along more traditional lecture room layout when working with first year students. This research will be valuable to institutions designing new computer laboratory facilities.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Atkinson, John, & Cornforth, David (2007) Sessional, weekly and diurnal patterns of computer lab usage by students. Computers & Education vol. 49, n? 3, pp. 726?739.

Most universities have invested in extensive infrastructure in the form on computer laboratories and computer kiosks. However is this investment justified when it is suggested that students work predominantly from home using their own computers? This paper provides an empirical study investigating how students at a regional university multicampus university use computer laboratories. The findings suggest that universities need to reassess the traditional driving force and expectation for extensive oncampus computing facilities as there is a huge underutilisation of these facilities. Instead it is recommended that alternative computing facilities in the form of student centred facilities such as wireless hotspots could be provided.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Clancy, Laura and Thwaites, Rik (2007) An Exploration of the Public Face of Indigenous Cultural Tourism in the Australian Media. Journal of Vacation Marketing vol. 13, n? 3, pp. 253273.

While there is considerable interest in Indigenous Cultural Tourism (ICT) in southeastern Australia the extent to the public is actually exposed to information on ICT products remained unknown. To assess the frequency of information provided, a range of Australian newspapers, magazines and television shows was examined for ICT content. Covering the period 200304, the study found that Australian tourism products were well covered with on average one item per issue/show. On the other hand, ICT products figured only once in every 25 newspaper issues and once in every 1314 magazine issues television shows. Compounding that low representation, the study found that ICT products located in the Northern Territory dominate the media coverage at the expense of local and instate products. The study concludes that current approaches are not working and that the industry should engage in the strategic hosting of visiting journalist programs and media familiarisation events

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2007) A Hand List of Imperial German Legislation regarding the Marshall Islands (18861914). Studies in German Colonial Heritage (ISSN 18347797) n? 3, pp. 1?13

After the proclamation of the protectorate of the Marshall Islands, the Imperial German administration put into place an array of provisions to give effect to the new colonial rule. This paper provides a hand list of all pieces of colonial legislation specifically promulgated for the Marshall Islands.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2007) On the Cultural Heritage of Robots. International Journal of Heritage Studies vol. 13 n? 1, pp. 421

Cultural Heritage Management is an inherently retrospective discipline. To the detriment of future heritage management, some heritage places were not recognised and managed even though they had instant global significance after their creation (eg sites of the Apollo space program). The current revolution in robotic technologies, coupled with the developments in artificial intelligence, suggests that the creation of selfreflective robots capable of semiindependent thought (processes) is not too far away. This paper explores the conceptual and ethical issues heritage managers face when dealing with the heritage such robots will create.

Spennemann, Dirk HR & Murphy, Guy (2007) Technological Heritage on Mars: Towards a Future of Terrestrial Artifacts on the Martian Surface. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. Vol. 60, n? 2, pp. 4253.

For the past 45 years the red planet has been the focus of human space exploration. Commencing with the crash landing of Mars 2 some 35 years ago, humanity has left a range of traces on the Martian surface. This paper provides an overview of the successful landing missions and the material culture these missions deposited on the surface of Mars. Environmental conditions on Mars are also considered, as these differ from those of the earth, and have important implications for the future integrity and management of these sites. This essay is the first step in a systematic appraisal of the cultural heritage values these sites possess for humanity at large and how such sites should be managed for the benefit of humankind.

Spennemann, Dirk HR and Sutherland, Gaye (2007) Potential Theft of Heavy Artefacts. An Examination of the Carrying Capacity of All Terrain Vehicles. Report prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska, Albury: Heritage Futures International. 13pp

ABSTRACT

 

2006
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2006) Fiction published in the Samoanische Zeitung (1901–1914). Canberra;Mulini Press. 21cm, iv, 68 pp. ISBN 0 9757232 0 0.

An investigation of the literary offerings of the only commercial German-langue newspaper published in Germany???s South Seas colonies.

O?Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2008) Education and Cultural Change: a view from Micronesia. International Journal of Educational Development vol. 28 n? 1, 206217

Traditionally, transmission of cultural knowledge between generations in Micronesia was the role of family, in particular parents and grand parents. To what extent is that role still important today? In this article, we draw on data obtained from questionnaires distributed to children and adults throughout Micronesia in 2002 and 2003 to consider how culture is being transferred between generations today. We argue the importance of local communities being closely involved in all aspects of formal education including developing and managing schools and their curricula to ensure that local aspirations are satisfied. Micronesian children have expressed preferences for favourite food, drink, and entertainment that follow international trends closely and are moving away from traditional choices. The data also show a shift away from traditional familybased cultural education to a more formal schoolbased model that emphasises the importance of teachers being familiar and sympathetic with local culture.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Cultural Heritage Management in Micronesia. The State of Play at the beginning of the 21st millennium. Micronesian Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 1-30

Forty years after the US Historic Preservation Act was passed with applicability to the (then) Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and 20 years after some of the Micronesian entities regained some control over the management of their on heritage, it is time to take stock. Based on the papers of the special journal issue on cultural heritage management in Micronesia, this paper sets out the state of play of the various aspects of cultural heritage management and outlines pathways for future developments
[PDF document, Full text]

 

O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) A Review of Historic Preservation Funding In Micronesia 1986-2003. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 545-556

The recent political independence of Micronesian communities that once formed the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) (administered by the United States) has driven some rapid and wide-ranging developments. Not all changes have been welcomed by local communities, and a strong desire for valued cultural elements to be preserved in culturally appropriate ways has emerged. Current management of formal historic preservation processes in Micronesia predominantly follows western concepts, particularly those used by the United States of America. Historic Preservation legislation originating in the U.S. has been largely transferred into local Micronesian legal and administrative frameworks.
    With few exceptions, historic preservation in Micronesia is also largely funded by external entities, and once again, the United States provides the bulk of that funding. The cultural differences that are clearly apparent between the U.S. and Micronesian political entities continue to generate misunderstandings, confusion, and frustration on both sides. Donor funded preservation programmes tend to preserve cultural elements that are favoured by those donors and, in the past at least, local preferences have often not been given the emphasis they deserve. Funding of historic preservation in Micronesia involves several sources and there are significant differences between the Freely Associated States (FAS) and Guam and the CNMI
[PDF document, Full text]

 

Sayers, Elizabeth and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) The Attitudes of Japanese Tourists towards Cultural heritage attractions in the CNMI. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 386-397

Eco-tourism and cultural tourism is being regarded as a major strategy to open up new tourism markets for some Micronesian states. With Japanese visitors making up the single largest contingent of tourists to Micronesia, there is a need to examine their attitudes towards the cultural and historical elements of the islands. Are they in fact interested in such attributes and what are their expectations for a visit? This paper examines the attitudes and expectations of a cohort of Japanese tourists to the CNMI and outlines the challenge faced by the cultural heritage and tourism management authorities
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Lorence, David (2006) Weed Infestation and its impact on the preservation of a Japanese-era Concrete building in Micronesia. The Agricultural Research Station, Pwunso, Nett, Pohnpei. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 458-471

High rainfall tropical environments are very conducive to luxuriant plant growth. While welcome for the management of tropical plant collections and botanical gardens, such conditions of plant growth can be detrimental to historic properties. This paper provides and analysis of the weed infestation of a Japanese concrete structure in Pohnpei, discussing the nature of the infestation, the origin of the seed material and the implications for management
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Sayers, Elizabeth and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) The Role of Cultural Attractions in the Motivations and Awareness Spectrum of Japanese Tourists in the CNMI. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 373-385

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands is being actively promoted as a destination to the Japanese market. In addition to 'sun and surf', the Northern Mariana Islands have a multi-layered cultural heritage to offer to the interested tourist. This paper explores whether these cultural sites play a role in the motivations of Japanese tourists to visit the CNMI and whether the tourists have an awareness of CNMI heritage at the time of their departure. The findings have substantive implications on cultural heritage policy if the CNMI wishes to engage the visitor community at large in the appreciation of its heritage
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Sayers, Elizabeth and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Cultural heritage attractions in the CNMI: Visitor Satisfaction and Experiences of Japanese Tourists. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 398-410

With over 80% market share, the Japanese dominate the tourist market in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. While the Northern Mariana Islands have a multi-layered cultural heritage to offer to the visitor, it is a challenge to interest the Japanese cohort, which is focussed on 'sun and surf.' This paper examines the extent to which Japanese tourists experienced the cultural and historical attributes and sites of the CNMI and explores whether these experiences would lead to repeat visitation. The paper demonstrates that the history of the islands, in particular the World War II sites, received a generally positive response coupled with a higher percentage of visitation. Aspects of local culture were less well received. It appears that the overall experience was marred by a perceived low quality of amenities and service
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Look, David (2006) Impact of Tropical vegetation On World War II-Era cultural resources in the Marshall Islands. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 440-462

The tropical environments prevalent on the islands of the Central Pacific is deleterious to the preservation of cultural materials. This is particular so for metal-based items, which make up the bulk of the extant material cultural associated with World War II sites. This paper views the impacts posed by the vegetation on the preservation of the remains of aircraft, guns and other equipment
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Examples of Adaptive re-Use of World War II Artefacts in Micronesia. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 268-284

Many Pacific Islands are littered with the remains of World War II. These remains range from the wrecks of ships, tanks and aircraft, to costal defense installations and general base infrastructure. The abundance of material left behind after the cessation of hostilities meant that local communities had abundant opportunity to salvage elements and put them to their own use. This paper provides an overview of the nature of adaptive reuse to which World War II artefacts have been put in Micronesia, highlighting the impact on heritage sites but also the innovation and transmodification that occurred, establishing new historic contexts for the artefacts
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Managing unexploded ammunition at and near cultural heritage sites. Issues for Micronesian Historic Preservation. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 234-267

Unexploded ammunition is a common hazard among heritage sites that have been the focus of military action. As the unpredictable nature of such ammunition threatens the wellbeing of management staff and visitors alike, unexploded items are normally removed and destroyed. That action, on the other hand, contravenes the principle that heritage sites should be in place and preserved unchanged to the extent feasible. This paper sets out the historical conditions that rise to the problem, discussed the nature and extent o the problem and strives to find an balanced approach that safeguards human life and health, while at the same time reduces the impact to the heritage places thus managed
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) The Archaeological Manifestation of Contemporary Marshallese Burial Practices. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 79-99

While prehistoric and early historic burials in Micronesia are on occasion uncovered either as a result of construction activities or due to shoreline erosion, there is no information how modern burial practices might be recognisable in the present and future archaeological record. This paper describes the observations made during exhumations and provides for some projections how modern burials might be interpretable in the future
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Skulls as Curios, Crania as Science: Some Notes on the Collection of Skeletal Material during the German Colonial Period. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 70-78

Burial plays a major cultural role in most Micronesian societies. Burial in the soil tied the deceased ancestors to the land they once owned and created and consolidated manifestations of land claims by the descendants. Apart from cultural practices, the burials were untouchable. During the nineteenth and early twentieth century European museums and anthropological societies were eager to acquire skeletal material from Micronesia to understand the peopling of the Pacific and the relationship of the various 'races.' To this end, German traders, officials and naval personnel obtained skeletal material both clandestinely and openly. In the latter case, acquiescence was assured through the power differential between the German officials and the local population. This paper compiles what is known of the German collection efforts in Micronesia
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Combining Curiosity with Political skill. The antiquarian interests of Georg Fritz. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5, no. 1-2 pp. 495-504

Georg Fritz was the first administrator of the German colonial district of the Mariana Islands. Given wide powers to make laws and regulations on behalf of the German Empire, Fritz set out to shape the polices of the German colonial administration according to his own views. Quite unlike other German administrations, the administration in the Marianas valued and actively fostered the continuation of Chamorro language, culture and practices, often at the expense of the (perceived) rights of German nationals. The physical manifestation of Fritz' policies were nine large imitations of latte stones--the first use of latte as a symbol of Chamorro culture and identity. This paper reviews Georg Fritz' antiquarian interests and his cultural politics
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) The Imagery of Postcards sold in Micronesia during the German Colonial Period. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5, no. 1-2 pp. 345-374

The first picture postcards of Micronesia were produced for the German colonies. Starting in 1898, cards existed for the Marshall Islands, soon followed by cards for Pohnpei, Yap, Palau and the Marianas. In total three main series can be identified: generic lithographed cards with reproductions of drawing or paintings, early photographic cards with undivided backs and white space on the image side for messages, and full-face image cards. The motifs on the early cards are scenic and ethnographic, while those on the second and third series predominately reproduce symbols of German colonial power and achievement. Cards that are exploitative of women (along the lines of 'dusky maidens'), which were so popular in Samoa, are very rare in the German Micronesian setting
[PDF document, Full text, 85mb]  [PDF document, Full text, low resolution 12mb]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Digital Futures in Micronesia: cultural management and the role of the Micronesian expatriate communities in Hawaii in the mainland USA. Micronesian Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 580-595

The maintenance of a community's cultural identity is subject to the community's perception of selfworth and its resilience towards outside influences. Historic preservation in Micronesia has a stake in this maintenance. While external influences driven by commercialization and globalization are ever present, their influences were mitigated by the external nature of the agents of change. The increased emigration of Micronesian communities to Hawaii and the mainland USA has created a situation where a sizeable population of stakeholders resides outside the community. This paper examines the implications of increased technological connectivity (internet, cellphones) on cultural management in Micronesia and shows that the new technologies allow for cultural influences to flow back to Micronesia with community members as agents of change possessing inherently greater persuasive powers
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Sayers, Elizabeth and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Provision of information on Cultural Attractions to Japanese Tourists in the CNMI. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 411-428

If cultural heritage tourism in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall succeed as a viable entity, visitors need to be aware of the cultural and historic attractions available to them. This paper examines the sources from which Japanese tourists obtained the required information. It demonstrates that printed matter, especially guidebooks, feature prominently, but also that much of the information about cultural and historic attractions is obtained after arrival. An examination of a series of magazines provided free-of-charge to tourists showed that cultural and historic attractions were only rarely included in the coverage
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) A longitudinal study of the uptake of and confidence in using WWW browsers among parks management students. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning vol. 3, no. 1, January 2006, pp. 41-51

The 1990's saw an unprecedented growth of the WWW. It was assumed that students would correspondingly take up the associated technologies. Between 1995 and 2000 a longitudinal study was carried out to test the usage and confidence of students using WWW browsers in a university environment. The results show that use of the WWW has increased to near saturation levels although a bias is evident between male and female users. A correlation was established between the frequency of use and confidence with which WWW browsers are being used
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Learning and Teaching 24/7: Daily Internet Usage Patterns at Nine Australian Universities. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 24 no. 1, pp. 27-44

The developments of the Internet in the past five years have seen this technology become all pervasive in most sectors of society. Academia was an early adopter, pushing the development in a wide range of aspects. There is substantial rhetoric that the 24/7 availability of the Internet, ie every hour of every day, allows students and academics to study and research independent of normal working hours. But does reality bear out the rhetoric? This paper looks at the usage of the Internet by students, academics and university administrators as part of their normal working day. It investigates whether access to computer facilities and the mode of study have any influence, or whether other factors need to be considered when providing services

Yalmambirra & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Gawaimbanna - Gu Wiradjuri Nhurranbaang (Welcome to Wiradjuri Country). Australasian Journal of Regional Studies vol. 12 no. 3, pp. 383-393

For too long Indigenous Australian communities have been labelled 'Aboriginal,' lumped together and treated as one indiscriminate population. Yet before the onset of European administration, there was no collective concept for the original owners of this continent, and each community, culturally divergent from its neighbours, had its own identity. This paper addresses some of the issues and argues for the need to establish separate, and culturally specific and localised consultation protocols to ensure that proper consultation occurs wherever the culture and heritage of the local Indigenous community is concerned

O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Cultural Traditions: the Realities for Elementary School Children in Micronesia. Micronesian Educator vol. 11 no. 1, pp. 1-26

Micronesian Children are increasingly exposed to commercialism and western forms of advertising. How will that affect current and future perception of traditional culture? The paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey administered to 581 school children across Micronesia. The respondents expressed strong preferences for 'favourite' items that have little or no traditional cultural connections and are international in scope. Choices of 'favourite' entertainment, of reading material, television, videos, music, and dancing, choices of preferred food and drink, all show an emerging internationalising of their preferences.
    If it is the wish of the Micronesian people to retain elements of their traditional cultures then concerted and deliberate, conscious action to prioritize and implement management processes that are appropriate to their cultures and circumstances must be taken soon. Cultural change is occurring with increasing rapidity throughout Micronesia and local communities are in a situation where their capacity to exercise control is limited

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) A Fading Present, a Lost Future Past? Researching the Heritage of Modern Shopping Arcades. Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 202-212

Shopping arcades and shopping malls have become ubiquitous in urban settings. Several historic buildings have been converted into arcades, while new malls have been built. In most cases the shop spaces provided in the arcades has a high level of turn over of tenants, often changing the use of the shops in the process. Using a case study from Albury, this paper reviews the available processes and the problems faced when reconstructing tenant histories of such facilities, and highlights the need to concerted action.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) A British six-inch gun at Barcinas Bay, Tinian, CNMI. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 130-136

.
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Physical reminders of the British-Japanese Armament Trade in Micronesia. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 113-129

.
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Extinctions and extirpations in Marshall Islands avifauna since European Contact???a review of historic evidence. Micronesica vol. 38 n?? 2, pp. 253-267

The Pacific Island avifauna underwent dramatic changes following the arrival of humans on the islands. Several species and genera were extirpated or made extinct. The declines in population size continued after the arrival of the Europeans, who brought with them domestic animals which became pests and predators. It was these predators, as well as human-induced changes of the ecosystems, which caused a new wave of extinction and extirpation. Drawing on historic sources, this paper describes the local extinction of three ground-dwelling bird species on the atolls of the Marshall Islands since European contact

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Gauging Community Values in Historic Preservation. CRM vol 3, no. 2, pp. 6-20.

For whom do we preserve the past? For our children???s children, as we assert, or for ourselves? What is the role of heritage places in our contemporary world (and what kind of world would that be if all our heritage places were removed)? Is historic preservation merely a luxury in times of economic affluence, or is it an integral part of the social and mental well-being of a community? For many preservationists, the community is comprised of those who come to meetings and make their views known, and the rest of the populace, the ???great unwashed.??? But are those continually standing on the preservation soap-box representative of the silent majority? Do we know what the community actually needs and wants? Is there a magical crystal ball that can predict what the community might want down the track? And finally, can we influence this, or is historic preservation ultimately nothing but a futile activity akin to rearranging the deck chairs on the Titanic heading for the ice-berg?
   Drawing on examples from Australia and Micronesia, this paper will try to challenge some notions of historic preservation, issue a new challenge to the audience and provide some tools and approaches towards solutions on the way.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Books, Computers and Assignments: An Exploration of Library Patronage and Sessional Patterns of Study at a Regional University in Australia Australian Library Journal vol. 55 no. 2, pp. 131-146

While library patronage has seen some research it has never been explored in terms of human activity pattern analysis. This paper places the patronage of three campus libraries at a regional university in Australia into the context of other teaching and learning, such as the use of computer laboratories and assignment deadlines. The paper demonstrates that library patronage, as can be expected, is closely related to such activities. Clear patterns of use over the duration of semesters can be derived which have implications for university management

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Freshwater Lens, Settlement Patterns, Resource Use and Connectivity in the Marshall Islands. Transforming Cultures vol. 1 no. 2, pp. 44-63. http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/ojs/index.php/TfC/article/download/261/1178

Life on coral atolls can be very precarious. The sand cay islets are low-lying (in the main less than 2m above high water) and small in size. Only the larger islands (over 500m by 1000m) are suitable for permanent human habitation, as they possess a fragile lens of freshwater floating on top of a saltwater base. It is this lens of groundwater that allows for a variety of plant life, and it is this source of fresh water that allows humans to exist. Environmental disasters, such as typhoons with waves of over 10m washing across an entire islet, can swamp the groundwater lens with saltwater, causing salinisation and thus imperilling human survival.
   To reduce the consequences of the environmental disasters, Marshallese chiefs had land holdings scattered over several islands of the same atoll, as well as land rights and, importantly, rights to resources, on other atolls. In times of disaster there were thus other resources to call upon. That level of connectivity allowed the Marshallese society to thrive on the marginal land the inhabited

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Out of this world: Issues of managing Tourism and Humanity's Heritage on the Moon. International Journal of Heritage Studies vol. 12 no. 4, pp. 356-371

Space tourism has become a reality and is bound to become ever more affordable. It is now time to spend serious thought on how humanity is going to manage the human material culture and heritage sites on the surface of the Moon. After all, the Apollo XI mission is of global human significance inasmuch as it was the first time a human being set foot on another celestial body. Environmental conditions on the Moon are such that what is considered low-impact visitation on earth would have devastating consequences for the heritage on the lunar surface

Graham, Kristy & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Disaster management and cultural heritage: An investigation of perceptions held by New South Wales Rural Fire Service Brigade Captains. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. Volume 2006-1 http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2006-1/graham.htm

The protection of life and property will always be the priority in any disaster situation. At the same time other considerations often fall by the way side and short-term decisions are made that have irreparable implications on environmental and cultural heritage issues. Anecdotal information and pilot studies suggested that there are a number of barriers that limit disaster planning for cultural heritage resources. In an attempt to provide empirical evidence of these barriers a postal survey was distributed to Rural Fire Service Brigade Captains throughout New South Wales (Australia). The results highlight limited understanding of cultural heritage issues, limited exposure to dealing with such resources in disaster situations and limited communication between heritage and disaster management agencies

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2006) A Micronesian Multiple First Day Cover. The Postcard that chronicles the German Take-Over of Micronesia. The Collectors Club Philatelist vol. 85 no. 3, pp. 163-173

Following Spain???s defeat in the Spanish-American war of 1898 the Imperial German Government acquired the former Spanish possessions in Micronesia. The hand-over occurred between 12 October and 18 November 1899, with separated ceremonies in the Spanish, and now German, district capitals of Pohnpei, Yap and Saipan. The German officers were aware of the historic significance of their mission for German philatelists. They created a series of postal history items commemorating the event. The Reply Card described here carries the first day cancels of the German post offices on Pohnpei, Yap and Saipan

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006). Your solution, their problem. Their solution, your problem: The Gordian Knot of Cultural Heritage Planning and Management at the Local Government Level. disP vol. 42, no. 164 ??? 1/2006, pp. 30-40

Cultural heritage management is, in essence, a facet of social engineering, whereby physical remains of the past (and present) are selectively preserved pandering to values currently held by the population at large. Indeed, mid- and long-term protection of heritage places can only occur if such places are ???embraced??? or ???owned??? by the community. However, public opinion, often coloured by nostalgia, omits, consciously or subconsciously, places that do not fit the present value system. Thus, inevitably there are places, which may be identified by expert opinion, that need to be preserved even if a community is apathetic or even antagonistic. Such differences of opinion allow for conflict to occur. Local planning and the implementation of planning priorities is inevitably caught up in it. The political dimension at the LGA level further complicates matters, particularly as we move from one heritage to a multitude of ???heritages.???
   Over the past decade the management of cultural heritage matters at the local government level has seen the decline of top-down, expert-driven studies, while bottom-up, community-driven, or at least community influenced, studies have increased. Both approaches have their failings and lead to gaps in the record.
   Furthermore, all too often heritage plans are limited. Great effort is expended focusing on the historic trends and themes of an area, and on inventorising, evaluating and listing of places deemed worth protecting. Yet next to no effort is spent on implementation strategies, ranging from capacity building within the administering local government to education of property owners, wider stakeholders, the public resident in the LGA and outside visitors.
   This paper discusses the pitfalls inherent in these various planning approaches and outlines strategies for LGA-level planning and management to maximise returns from heritage planning projects.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Daily Internet Usage Patterns in Australia: an Exploration. The Information Society vol. 22 no. 2, pp. 101-110

The developments of the Internet in the past five years have seen this technology become all pervasive in most sectors of society. Increasingly, the Internet has become a communications medium to deliver content for both work/education and entertainment. While research has focussed on the applications of the technology, little has been done to demonstrate how this fits into our daily lives over the run of an average day. Using data drawn from Australian services, this paper provide a new methodology to explore when usage does occur, and to what extent a difference exists between various sectors of the community. It also demonstrates the suitability of human activity patterns and time usage studies to understand how society adopts new technologies.

Cornforth, David; Atkinson, John and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Configuration and management of a cluster computing facility in undergraduate student computer laboratories. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol 23, no. 1, 15-23

Many university researchers and postgraduate students require access to computer facilities beyond those offered by desktop machines. Traditionally these are offered either through partnerships to share the cost of supercomputing facilities, or through purpose-built cluster facilities. However, funds are not always available to satisfy either of these options, and university departments are under increasing pressure to obtain the maximum return on investment. In this work we describe the development of a low-cost cluster computing facility. The novel aspect of this work is that the facility was built using existing student computing laboratories. Our success depends on the fact that these laboratories are under utilised during most of the time. These workstations participate in a cluster to supply the needs of researchers, but remain configured as individual workstations, so continue to meet the need of students carrying out work in connection with their undergraduate studies. In this way the university was able maximise return on their investment. In this paper we report the development of the facility, discuss issues that arose, and show how we dealt with them in order to achieve this cost-effective solution

Spennemann, Dirk H.R.. (2006) German-Language Books in Jindera. An illustrated Catalogue of Items held by the Jindera Pioneer Museum. Albury, NSW : {retro | spect} ISBN 978 1 921220 00 5

XXXX

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) The Border Post (Albury, NSW) Fiction Index 1856-1885. Albury: {retro|spect} (HeritageFutures International). xxxvii, 114 pages, ISBN 978 1 921220 01 2

Founded in 1856, the Border Post was Albury's first newspaper. The range of verse, from doggerel to bush ballads to literary poetry, was a common art form in the mid 19th century. Some of the letters to the editor, as well as some election announcements and even advertisements were expressed in verse. Prose fiction was expensive and was thus limited. This is well reflected in the pages of the Border Post, which focussed on verse over prose in its offerings.
The Border Post (Albury, NSW) Fiction Index 1856–1885 illustrates the wide range of poetry and short fiction offered to the readership, fiction drawn from British, American and Australian papers, magazines and books. The wide scope of the sources used by the Border Post demonstrates the scope of the editors. Far from being a small parochial paper, the Border Post was a major influence shaping the cultural and political development of North-Eastern Victoria and Southern New South Wales.
[Full Text: [PDF document, courtesy {retro|spect}]

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2006) Nathan Augustus Cobb Plant Pathologist. A Bibliography of his work. Albury, N.S.W. : {retro|spect} (HeritageFutures International) .
xxxvii, 114 pages, ISBN 978 1 921220 01 2

Nathan August Cobb (1859–1932) was instrumental in developing a scientific approach to agriculture in New South Wales (Australia). From 1905 onwards he worked in Hawai'i and then the USA. This is the first comprehensive bibliography of Cobb's work, listing more than 550 items. It is preceded by an a biographical sketch. [PDF document, courtesy {retro|spect}]

 

2005
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Kosmer, Linda (2005) Heritage sites of the US Space Program in Australia: are we managing them adequately? QUEST - The History of Spaceflight Quarterly vol. 12 n? 2, pp. 52-64

Because of Australia's geographical and geopolitical situation, NASA established or utilised a number of space tracking stations on Australian soil. All of the crewed space missions were for part of their orbits controlled from Australian stations, culminating in the landing of the first human being on the moon. While arguably less iconographic than rockets, capsules or launch towers, without these tracking stations mission success and astronaut safety could not be assured. This paper reviews what remains of these stations and how current heritage management in Australia deals with its own tangible evidence of humanity's endeavour to explore space.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Risk Assessments in Heritage Planning in Victoria and New South Wales. A Survey of the status quo. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management vol. 12 n? 2, pp. 89-96.

All conservation management plans written between 1987 and 2003 for heritage properties in NSW and Victoria, as well as all heritage studies completed between 1985 and 2003 for local government areas in Victoria were surveyed to assess to what extent natural disaster hazards are addressed. The results are very discouraging, with less then 10% of such documents making any mention of disaster hazards. The extent to which those studies address the hazards is also very varied. There is much room for improvement if heritage is to have a future in the face of disasters. .

Atkinson, John, Cornforth, David & Spennemann, Dirk H.R (2005) Redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories into cluster computing facilities. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 22, n? 4, p. 201-209

For reasons of equity of access, universities have established computer laboratories for use by their on-Campus students. However an investigation of the utilisation of the computer laboratories at Charles Sturt University found considerable under utilisation of the facilities. This provides an opportunity to re-divert the processing capacity of some or all of these spare computer resources into other projects. Current research indicates the benefits of linking individual desktop computer systems into a cluster computing facility. The paper concludes by outlining the most likely strategy for the development of a distributed High Performance Computing Facility at very little additional cost.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) The deBrum Library on Likiep Atoll as an example of Private Library Development in Micronesia at the turn of the Nineteenth Century. Journal of Pacific Studies (Fiji) vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 310-327

The acquisition of books and other reading material has always been a challenge for people living in remote locations. This was particularly true for the islands world of Micronesia where the expatriate population was not only small, but also geographically scattered and linguistically diverse. This paper demonstrates how an exceptional individual could assemble a 1500-volume library on semi-remote Likiep Atoll in the Marshall Islands

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2005) The Naval heritage of Project Apollo: a case of losses. Journal of Maritime Research October 2005, www.jmr.nmm.ac.uk/spennemann

For twenty years American astronauts returned from their space adventures by splashing into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It was the US Navy's task to recover them, and their spacecraft, safely and swiftly. To assist in tracking and communicating with the astronauts in space, the Military Sea Transport Service operated a number of telemetry vessels on behalf of the US Navy and US Air Force. While not as spectacular as the activities surrounding the launch of the rockets, the naval component of the US space program of the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo era was instrumental to its success and overall excellent safety record. Historic Preservation is about the intentional, selective preservation of heritage items for the benefit of future generations. This paper reviews which, if any, elements of the naval heritage of the US Space program have been preserved, and which processes have been employed to undertake the selection and assessment

Spennemann, Dirk HR, Atkinson, John & Cornforth, David (2005) One reality of the Digital Divide: An exploration of individual computer lab usage at a regional university in Australia.. In: Dirk HR Spennemann & Leslie Burr (eds), Good Practice in Practice. Proceedings of the Student Experience Conference 5-7th September '05. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Charles Sturt University. Pp. 71-81.

Studies have shown the presence of a digital divide in the community relating to computer access. Universities, eager to embrace the benefits of digital technology, rolled out on-line environments that provided wide-spread benefits, but also potential disadvantages to individuals who were less well off. To mitigate any disadvantages derived from access issues, universities moved to provide free access to computer laboratories. But as IT has become more widespread, the question arose whether that still holds true and whether such provision is still necessary. This study looks at the computer lab use at a regional university in Australia. .

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (ed.) (2005). Louis Becke, His Native Wife. Edited and Introduced by Dirk H.R. Spennemann. Canberra: Mulini Press. xxxvi, 123 pp., ISBN 978-0-9757232-2-7

A critical edition of Louis Becke's first novella. While the introduction provides the context of the novella and discusses its importance in the literary career of the author , an appendix provides a critical comparison of all editions.

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2005) The reception of Robbery Under Arms in Albury in 1888/89. Margin no. 65, April 2005, pp. 32-35

The paper discusses the Albury connection of the publication history of Rolf Boldrewood's Robbery under Arms and describes the reception the book received while Boldrewood was resident in the town.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) The wreck of the Libelle and other early European Visitors to Wake Island, Central Pacific. Micronesian Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 4 no 2, pp. 108-122.

Wake Atoll, even though off of the main shipping lines between Hawaii and the Philippines or HongKong had been a navigation hazard in the nineteenth century, largely because it was so low lying and thus hard to see, but also because it position had often been incorrectly reported. This paper details the early European history of the atoll and focuses on a shipwreck and the subsequent salvage events.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2005) Traditional and nineteenth century communication patterns in the Marshall Islands. The Micronesian Journal of the Human-ities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2 n? 1-2, pp. 50-58.

In the atoll world of Micronesia, any traditional communication between the populations within an atoll and especially between atolls relied on sea voyages by canoe. This paper considers the situation in the Marshall Islands, a group of atolls arranged in two parallel chains. The paper sets out the (re-)construction of communications networks based on graph theory and then provides a discussion of the evidence on communications in the early Marshall Islands. This draws together data as diverse as traditional stick charts, known voyages and their durations, as well as linguistics, epidemiology and biogeography. Based on a combination of these data a network model is proposed.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) The Atoll Post of the Eanijen Rakijen in 1909: A Contribution to the Postal History of the Marshall Islands. Berliner Protokolle Heft 75, Juni 2005, pp. 106-116

One of the most intriguing examples of Marshall Islands postal history stems from the German colonial period: handwritten cancellations made by captains of sailing vessels and by postal agents on several atolls. Ever since they were authorised in 1902, these cancellations have been sought after by collectors. Increased publicity of their existence in 1908, coupled with colonial fervour in the general press, created a strong demand among German stamp collectors. It is not surprising that enterprising expatriates in the Marshall Islands provided a philatelic 'service' catering for that market. Some of them, the philatelic literature has claimed, are outright falsifications that never saw real transportation aboard any of the island vessels. This paper will examine in detail the case of one set of these handwritten cancellations, those created in March and April 1909 aboard the schooner Eanijen Rakijen. It will demonstrate that the voyage indeed occurred, and that the cancellations are genuine, albeit most of them of a purely philatelic nature.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Die Atoll Post der Marshall Inseln: Geplante Analyse und Vorl??ufiger Katalog. Berliner Protokolle Heft 75, Juni 2005, 116

XXXXX.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) No. 532 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. Observations made during the demolition of the structure. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report n? 102. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

XXXXX.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) Documenting Tenant Sequences for Properties 526, 528-530 and 532 Kiewa Street, Albury. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report n? 103. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

The report details the tenant histories of the 1970s conversion of the former stables building into a shopping arcade. Photographic docuentation of shops is provided where photographs couldbe sourced.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) No. 528-530 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. Observations made during the demolition of the structure. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report n? 130. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

XXXXX.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) No. 526 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. Observations made during the demolition of the structure. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report n? 131. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

XXXXX.

 

2004
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (in press). The First Descriptions of the Southern Marshalls. The 1788 accounts of Thomas Gilbert, Edward Home & John Marshall. Edited, annotated and introduced by Dirk H. R. Spennemann. Albury : {retro | spect} and Majuro : Micronitor Press. viii, 106 pp. ISBN 1 876940 14 X.

A critical edition of the first accounts of British merchant captains to encounter the southern atolls of the Marshall Islands.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2004) Nathan A. Cobb in Jena 1887-88. Russian Journal of Nematology vol. 12 nª 1, pp. 79-84.

Nathan A. Cobb, often described as the father of American nematologial research, was a very pro-lific researcher. Drawing on published and archival information, this paper describes his early career and his study at the University of Jena (Germany) which laid the scientific foundations for his future career.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2004) An Example of Mail Fraud in 19th Century Samoa. Journal of South Pacific Law vol. 8 nª 2 http://law.vanuatu.usp.ac.fj/jspl/Volume8Number22004/spenneman

Article detailing an example of mail fraud, the purchase of wine and spirits from an Albury wine merchant, committed from Samoa, and difficulties in recovering the money owed.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (2004) Preface to the digital edition. in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites , San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. vii–viii.
Burr, Leslie & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2004) Patterns of user behavior in University on-line forums. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning vol. 1, nª 10, October 2004, pp. 11–18.

Online forums have become the backbone of most computer-supported distance education programs. While analyses have been carried out assessing the content of a limited number of such forums, there is little work done on how and when students make use of such facilities. There is much talk about 24/7, anytime, anywhere availability?but do students make use of this extended envelope, or is this just education rhetoric? This paper presents the outcomes of a large-scale study examining the usage of over 2000 forums for a period of four years.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2004) Digital Divides in the Pacific Islands. IT & Society vol. 1 no 7, pp. 46-65.
http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/itandsociety/v01i07/v01i07a04.pdf

Pacific Island countries face serious challenges in the delivery of information services: a limited economic base, relative isolation of the countries, geographic dispersal of their population on small islands within each country, compounded by cultural and linguistic diversity. Not surprising, much of this translates into digital divides. This paper reviews the nature of the digital divides that exist in the Pacific region, considering divides within countries, between the countries, and between the Pacific region and the rest of the world

Spennemann Dirk H. R. (2004) An Annotated Bibliography of German Language Sources on the Mariana Islands. Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands : Division of Historic Preservation. 22 cm; vi, 342 pp. ISBN 1-878453-71-8

XXXXX.

Hughes, Sue, Spennemann, Dirk HR., Harvey, Ross (2004) Tracing the material culture of the goldfields' press in colonial Victoria. Media History. vol. 10 n? 2. pp 89-102.

XXXXX.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2004) The occurrence of owls in the Marshall Islands. Notornis vol. 51, n? 3, pp. 147-151

Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus are capable of crossing long stretches of open water and have been successful colonisers of islands. In the Central Pacific two established populations (on Hawai'i and on Pohnpei in Micronesia) seem to be the foci of repeated dispersal events. The paper reviews the historic and linguistic record for the occurrence of short-eared owls on the scattered atolls of the Marshall Islands, the easternmost group of Micronesia.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2004) Books and Libraries in German Micronesia 1885-1914. Library History vol. 20, n? 3, pp. 207-222

This paper reviews what is known about public and private libraries in Micronesia during the period of the German colonial administration in the Marshall Islands (1886-1914) and the rest of Micronesia (1898-1914) with the exception of Guam. In the following we will briefly address the nature of public libraries in the German colonies in Africa and the Samoa, before we concentrate on the situation in Micronesia.

Spennemann, Dirk HR. & O'Neill, Jon G. (2004) Curating Books on remote Islands: The Fate of the deBrum Library on Likiep Atoll, Marshall Islands. Australian Library Journal vol. 53, n? 4, 2004, pp.397-407

Extensive private libraries are rare in the tropical Pacific. This holds even more true for libraries established during the late nineteenth century. There was only one such library in entire Micronesia: the Joachim deBrum Library on Likiep. This paper briefly describes the library and discusses its management over time, including the challenges faced in conservation management.

O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2004) Design and Application of On-Line Questionnaires: experiences from Micronesia. The Micronesian Journal of the Human?ities and Social Sciences. Vol. 3 n? 1-2, pp. 64-80

The administration of mail-out questionnaires in Micronesia is plagued by the tyrannies of spatial and cultural distances: Micronesians live dispersed throughout the islands of Micronesia and various locales in the island and mainland USA. They have also been described as people preferring oral exchanges over written communication. While the administration of paper-based questionnaires is challenging, observations of a digital divide in the Pacific make the use of on-line questionnaires a daunting proposition. This paper describes the development of the survey instrument and how it was received by the population surveyed. Advantages and disadvantages of the methodology are discussed.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2004) An Empirical Analysis of the On-Campus Presence of Students at Charles Sturt University in 2003. Bathurst, NSW: Centre for Enhancing Learning and Teaching, Charles Sturt University.

This study analyses the on-campus presence of students at three major campuses of Charles Sturt University (New South Wales) in the autumn and spring semesters of 2003. It demonstrates that student load is neither uniform over across the days of the week, nor uniform over the duration of a work day. Low load periods are identified that can be used facility management, while the identification of high load periods may provide opportunities for a retargeting of resources to meet the demand. The load curves presented in this study can be used for allied studies and analysis of student use of computing laboratories, libraries and so forth.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (1997 [2004]) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation & Interpretation Project. Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Draft Conservation Management Plan. Johnstone Centre Report nª 103. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Reset digital version: 2004

Conservation Management Plan for the ruins of the first custom-built research builing one of the NSW Department of Agriculture Research Farms. Designed by Nathan A Cobb, the two storey building was the first to utilise reinforced concrete fo a roof.

[PDF document, Full text, (55.8 mB)] Or download in parts
Part A (2.3 mB), Part B (6.0 mB), Part C (2.3 mB), Part D (5.4 mB), Part E (4.2 mB), Part F (6.7 mB), Part G (6.9 mB), Part H (5.0 mB), Part I (6.4 mB), Part K (5.5 mB), Part L (6.0 mB),
Note: the report has some A3 fold out pages.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2004) The Ethics of treading on Neil Armstrong's Footsteps. Space Policy vol. 20 n? 4, pp. 279-290

The Moon landings of the Apollo program irrevocably changed the way we see ourselves. Most significantly, this was the first time that humans set foot on a celestial body other than Earth. The program has left a number of sites on the Moon as well as Earth. While the management of the sites and artefacts on Earth is fairly straight forward as they are subject to national heritage legislation, it is not so simple with the sites and artefacts on the lunar surface. Moreover, the sites on the Moon differ in one truly unique aspect from all other heritage sites on Earth: the absence of a lunar atmosphere of any note means that all foot- and track prints of the astronauts are preserved providing a total record of the pioneering phases of human exploration of the Moon. New developments of Space tourism, including proposals for lunar heritage tourism, however, threaten the preservation of these traces on the Moon. This paper discusses the terrestrial and in particular the extraterrestrial heritage of the Apollo program. Set out are the management ethics that need to apply on the lunar surface if the unique heritage is to have a future .

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2004) Fiction Published in Nineteenth Century Samoa Newspapers (1877–1900). Canberra: Mulini Press. iv, 94 pp. ISBN 0-949910-99-6

Perched at ‘The Beach” (now Apia) on Upolu, a small community of expatriate traders and planters gained a foot hold during the second part of the nineteenth century. German, American and British interests competed for supremacy by interfering with local Samoan politics. Despite the small readership base, three newspapers were started up: the Samoa Times in its two incarnations (1877–1881 and 1888–1896) and the Samoa Weekly Herald (1892–1900).
Typical country newspapers by nature and outlook, these papers provided their readers with local and regional news, political debate through letters to the editor—and a regular a dose of poetry and short fiction. While little is known about the reading habits of the expatriate community on Samoa, these papers provide a glimpse of what the traders and planters read.
Fiction Published in Nineteenth Century Samoan Newspapers provides an overview of the history papers and an analysis origin of the fiction content as well as an index to poetry and short fiction published in the three newspapers.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2004) The June 1846 Eruption of Fonualei Volcano, Tonga. An Historical Analysis. Johnstone Centre Report nª 196. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

An analysis of the various historic records of the June 1846 volcanic eruption of Fonualei, Tonga. The report draws on missionary accounts as well as whaler’s logbooks to reconstruct the felt area of the eruption and the dimensions of the ash plume.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2004) Samoan Mail Fraud and James Fallon. Albury and District Historic Society Bulletin nª 437, July 2004, pp. 1–2

Brief item on an incident of mail fraud, the purchase of wine and spirits from an Albury wine merchant, committed from Samoa, and difficulties in recovering the money owed.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2004). Your solution, their problem. Their solution, your problem: The Gordian Knot of Cultural Heritage Planning and Management at the Local Government Level. Paper Presented at Planning Institute of Australia Conference 2004: Planning on the Edge. Hobart 22 - 26 February 2004. Included on conference CD,

Cultural heritage management is, in essence, a facet of social engineering, whereby physical remains of the past (and present) are selectively preserved pandering to values currently held by the population at large. Indeed, mid- and long-term protection of heritage places can only occur if such places are ‘embraced’ or ‘owned’ by the community. However, public opinion, often coloured by nostalgia, omits, consciously or subconsciously, places that do not fit the present value system. Thus, inevitably there are places, which may be identified by expert opinion, that need to be preserved even if a community is apathetic or even antagonistic. Such differences of opinion allow for conflict to occur. Local planning and the implementation of planning priorities is inevitably caught up in it. The political dimension at the LGA level further complicates matters, particularly as we move from one heritage to a multitude of ‘heritages.’
Over the past decade the management of cultural heritage matters at the local government level has seen the decline of top-down, expert-driven studies, while bottom-up, community-driven, or at least community influenced, studies have increased. Both approaches have their failings and lead to gaps in the record.
Furthermore, all too often heritage plans are limited. Great effort is expended focusing on the historic trends and themes of an area, and on inventorising, evaluating and listing of places deemed worth protecting. Yet next to no effort is spent on implementation strategies, ranging from capacity building within the administering local government to education of property owners, wider stakeholders, the public resident in the LGA and outside visitors.
This paper discusses the pitfalls inherent in these various planning approaches and outlines strategies for LGA-level planning and management to maximise returns from heritage planning projects.

 

2003
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2003) The silverlining of horror. A devil?s advocate?s point of view. Teaching Ethics 3(2), pp. 93-98

Discussion of the impact of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, arguing a case that, in a perverse way, the trauma caused by the nuclear contamination has been beneficial to the national economy of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and has increased its standing on the international political scene.

O’Neill, Jon G. & Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) The Joachim De Brum House, Likiep Atoll, Marshall Islands—an outstanding example of Micronesian plantation architecture. The Micronesian Journal of the Human-ities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2 no 1–2, pp. 31-41.

The deBrum House on Likiep Island, Likiep Atoll, Marshall Islands is a cultural heritage site, which is unique in the Marshall Islands, in Micronesia and in fact in most of the Pacific. As a complete colonial period homestead replete with much of the original furnishings, include. Books, phonograph rolls and glass plate negatives it provides a unique insight into both the living conditions of affluent planters during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, as well as into the mind of an exceptional Marshallese man, Joachim deBrum.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) Teacher and Student perceptions of the cultural heritage of the CNMI. An empirical snap-shot. The Micronesian Journal of the Human-ities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2 no 1–2, pp. 50-58.

Community attitudes towards heritage are nor well studied in Micronesia. This paper presents the results of a study of the attitudes of teachers, college and high school students of the CNMI. It shows that traditional aspects outrank those on the colonial past. Also differences in significance between Chamorro and Carolinian sites were observed.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (ed.) (2003), Rudolf von Benningsen (1859–1912) The German Take-Over of the Caroline, Palau & Mariana Islands. Translated, anno-tated and introduced by Dirk H.R. Spennemann. Division of Historic Preservation Oc-casional Historical Papers Series nª 6. Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mari-ana Islands: Division of Historic Preservation. 73pp. ISBN 1-878453-60-2.

An annotated translation of the account of the German take over of German Take-Over of the Caroline, Palau & Mariana Islands following the sale of islands by Spain in 1899. These are the first German colonial observations on the islands, their prospects, as well as opinions on the outgoing Spanish administration.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) Nathan Augustus Cobb Plant Pathologist. A Bibliography of his work. Albury, N.S.W. : retrospect.
xxxvii, 114 pages, ISBN 1 876940 09 3

Nathan August Cobb (1859–1932) was instrumental in developing a scientific approach to agriculture in New South Wales (Australia). From 1905 onwards he worked in Hawai'i and then the USA. This is the first comprehensive bibliography of Cobb's work, listing more than 550 items. It is preceded by an a biographical sketch. [PDF file, free download]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003) Traditional Milkfish Aquaculture in Nauru. Aquaculture International vol. 10 nª 6, pp. 551-562

Milkfish (Chanos chanos) aquaculture has a long antiquity on the island of Nauru (Pacific Ocean), predating European contact. Fry were caught in the surf and transferred to brackish water ponds in the island's interior. While most of the fry died, large numbers survived. They were harvested when the milkfish reached a body weight of abut 2 pounds. This paper describes the traditional approaches to aquaculture and puts them into a modern context.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) Bones of contention. Anthropology Today vol.19 nª 6, pp. 20-21. .

The initial human settlement of the large raised limestone island of Tongatapu occurred about 1000 years before the settlement of neighbouring volcanic 'Eua. The paper describes the environmental conditions for settlement and presents radiocarbon data for the earliest site on 'Eua. A sterile layer of soil found above the initial occupation horizon is interpreted as evidence for large-scale clearing of vegetation upslope of the site, indicating massive human-induced environmental change.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. O’Neill, Jon G. & O’Neill, Joan (2003) A Rapid Assessment of the Library of the Joachim deBrum House, Likiep Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Johnstone Centre Report 197. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

Extensive private libraries are rare in the tropical Pacific. This holds even more true for libraries established during the late nineteenth century. There was only one such library in entire Micronesia: the Joachim deBrum Library on Likiep. This study describes the library and discusses its management over time, including the challenges faced in conservation management.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) The road to urbanisation. Post-dicting the evo-lution of the road network on Tongatapu, Kingdom of Tonga. in… Jörg Eckert, Ursula Eisenhauer & Andreas Zimmermann (eds), Archäologische Perspektiven, Analysen und Interpretationen im Wandel. Festschrift für Jens Lüning zum 65. Geburtstag. Rahden/Westfalen: Verlag Marie Leidorf. Pp. 165-178. .

The initial human settlement of the large raised limestone island of Tongatapu occurred about 1000 years before the settlement of neighbouring volcanic 'Eua. The paper describes the environmental conditions for settlement and presents radiocarbon data for the earliest site on 'Eua. A sterile layer of soil found above the initial occupation horizon is interpreted as evidence for large-scale clearing of vegetation upslope of the site, indicating massive human-induced environmental change.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. and Atkinson, John S. (2003) A longitudinal study of the uptake of and confidence in using e-mail among parks management students. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 20 nª 2, pp. 55–66.

This paper details a longitudinal study into the e-mail habits of first year students at Charles Sturt University. This study is part of ongoing research investigating the factors and barriers that can in-fluence the successfully adoption of technology into the learning environment. The findings from this study illustrate that e-mail applications are very popular in terms of both usage as well as the high level of confidence that students exhibit. The survey identified two main areas that need to be addressed, namely the disadvantage of rural students in accessing e-mail and secondly that male students tend not to be as frequent users of e-mail compared to their female counterparts.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003). Usage of Express Stamps on Samoa Times Newspapers. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 19, nª 1, pp. 8–11.

Discusses the presence of, and dates for, Samoa Express stamps encountered on copies of the Samoa Times newspaper.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003). "Timing the Express" Mail Dates of the Samoa Times Express Postal Service. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 19, nª 1, pp. 4–7.

Provides a listing of all ships carrying mail from Samoa between 1877 and 1881 (as reported in the Samoa Times).

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003) Risk Assessments in Heritage Planning in Victoria. I: A Rapid Survey of the Conservation Management Plans written in 1997?2002. Johnstone Centre Report no 185. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Review of all Victorian Conservation Management Plans to assess whether the risks posed by natural disasters are assessed and taken into account in the planning process. The results confirm anecdotal information that this is overwhelmingly absent.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003) Risk Assessments in Heritage Planning in Victoria. II: A Rapid Survey of Local Government Area Heritage Management Plans written in 1985?2002. Johnstone Centre Report no 186. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Review of all Victorian Local Government Area Heritage Management Plans to assess whether the risks posed by natural disasters are assessed and taken into account in the planning process. The results confirm anecdotal information that this is overwhelmingly absent.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003) Risk Assessments in Heritage Planning in New South Wales. A Rapid Survey of the Conservation Management Plans written in 1997–2002. Johnstone Centre Report no 184. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Review of all New South Wales Conservation Management Plans to assess whether the risks posed by natural disasters are assessed and taken into account in the planning process. The results confirm anecdotal information that this is overwhelmingly absent.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 526 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 188. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of 'Kiewa House.' The report provides a description of the fabric of the building as it appeared in 2003, of the building's history, as well as the historic context in which the structure needs to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 528-530 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 189. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of 'Kiewa House.' The report provides a description of the fabric of the building as it appeared in 2003, of the building's history, as well as the historic context in which the structure needs to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 532 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 190. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of 'Kiewa House.' The report provides a description of the fabric of the building as it appeared in 2003, of the building's history, as well as the historic context in which the structure needs to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 534-36 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 191. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of the property, now a vacant block used as a council carpark. The report provides a description of the history of the buidlings that existed on the site, as well as the historic context in which the structures need to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 538-540 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 192. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of the property, now a vacant block used as a council carpark. The report provides a description of the history of the buidlings that existed on the site, as well as the historic context in which the structures need to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) Archaeological Assessment of European Cultural Heritage Potential Albury Cultural Precinct Stage 1. Johnstone Centre Report nª 187. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

This report extracts all information developed in the varois studies on the properties 526, 528-530, 532, 534-536 and 538-540 Kiewa Street and provides a concise projection on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present and how that matter should be handled in the case that demolitions were to commence..

Downing, Jane & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2003) Murray’s Game of Consequences. Artreach. The Regional Arts NSW Quarterly Magazine September 2003, p. 23.

Narrative of the progressive novel project conceptualized and coordinated by the authors and carried out by Booranga Writers Albury

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2003) Ephemera of a brewer and journalist: John Farrell’s An Iliad of Albury. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter 25.67.

xxx

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2003) Nineteenth Century Newspapers in Samoa. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter 25.68.

xxx

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003). Mary Elizabeth Braddon’s novels in the Albury Banner. Margin 59, pp. 23–28.

Indexing of fiction published by the Border Post and the. Albury Banner and Wodonga Express between 1860 and 1900 showed that of all authors serialised by the newspapers the sensasionalist writer Mary Braddon dominated the pages. The article discusses the Albury serialisations in an Australian context

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003). An Annotated Bibliography of German Language Literature relating to the Postal Connections and Philately of the Mariana Islands 1900–1921. I. Items on Postal Services and Rates. Vorl?ufer. 131 (June 2003, pp. 30-32.
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003). An Annotated Bibliography of German Language Literature relating to the Postal Connections and Philately of the Mariana Islands 1900–1921. II. Shipping Connections and Time Tables Vorl?ufer. nª 132, September 2003, pp. 17-22.
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003). An Annotated Bibliography of German Language Literature relating to the Postal Connections and Philately of the Mariana Islands 1900–1921. III. Statistics on Shipping Connections and Postal Services. Vorl?ufer. nª 133, December 2003, pp. 11-13
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003). Hialeah Forgeries of German Colonial Stamps Vorläufer 130, March 2003, pp. 9–16.

Discussion of modern forgeries of German colonial stamps.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003). Mail Run Times between Micronesia and Germany: Request for Assistance. Vorläufer. nª 131, June 2003, pp. 34.

Brief item of the mail times between Micronesia and Germany, presenting preliminary data on the Marshall Islands. The data are derived from an analysis of dispatch and arrival postmarks on letters and postcards contained in collections and offered on the philatelic auction market. The paper includes a request to assist in the data collection.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003). Postlaufzeiten zwischen Mikronesien und Deutschland: Gesuch um Hilfestellung. Berliner Protokolle n vol. 62, April 2003, p. 72.

German language version of previous item .

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. and Claghorn, Bill (2003). Fournier Setenant Pairs of German Yacht Issues. Vorläufer. nª 131, June 2003, pp. 18-22.

XXX.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) Novels by Instalments. Margin 59, pp. 37-38.

Review of ‘Index to Serials in Australian Periodicals and Newspapers. Nineteenth Century’ by Toni Johnson-Woods (Mulini Press, 2002).

 

2002
145. Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Look, David W. & Graham, Kristy (2002) Heritage Ecotourism in Micronesia: What do Decision Makers expect? Pacific Tourism Review vol 6 nª1, pp. 51-61

A questionnaire was administered to the participants of the first Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium in Micronesia (held between 28 February and 3 March 2000 on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The study looks at the attitudes Micronesian decision makers have towards Heritage Eco-Tourism.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Wiles, Gary J. (2002) A historical attempt to control flying foxes in Samoa with an introduced disease. Australian Mammalogy. vol. 23, pp. 177-179,

The paper discusses the introduction of avian cholera (haemorrhagic septicemia) to control a fruit bat population affecting fruit tree plantations during the German colonial period of Samoa. The history of the event and the mid-term and long term effects are discussed and compared with other known disease outbreaks among flying fox populations.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002) Late Lapita colonisation of a high island in Western Polynesia: The case of 'Eua Island, Tonga. The Artefact vol. 25, 26-32.

The initial human settlement of the large raised limestone island of Tongatapu occurred about 1000 years before the settlement of neighbouring volcanic 'Eua. The paper describes the environmental conditions for settlement and presents radiocarbon data for the earliest site on 'Eua. A sterile layer of soil found above the initial occupation horizon is interpreted as evidence for large-scale clearing of vegetation upslope of the site, indicating massive human-induced environmental change.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2002). Nineteenth Century Observations on Contact sites on Suwarrow Atoll, Northern Cook Is. Archaeology in New Zealand vol 45 nª 4, pp. 297-308.

The paper describes a series of observations on archaeological remains made by Handley Bathurst Sterndale (1829–1878) while establishing a trading station on Suwarrow Atoll. An interpretation of Sterndale’s findings is given.

O’Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002) German Colonial Heritage in post-colonial Micronesia. Pacific Studies vol. 25, no 3, pp. 1–16.

Micronesia has a long history of colonial occupation: Spanish, German, Japanese and finally US American. Each of these powers has left tangible remains of their occupation and each has influenced the preservation of Micronesian culture. This paper explores the nature of historic preservation of colonial sites and property in a post-colonial world. What are the priorities and what are the constraints for Micronesian countries to manage their colonial past at a time when cultural self-determination has become reality?.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and O'Halloran, Charmain (2002) Waste of recreational boating and fishing as a source of archaeological site contamination on the bottom lands of inland reservoirs. Australian Journal of Environmental Management vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 21-26.

A survey found archaeological sites on the bottom of the Hume Reservoir to be contaminated by modern refuse, particularly glass bottles. The debris is deposited by recreational fishermen while the reservoir is filled. The contamination creates two problems: a threat to the integrity of the archaeological record; and a threat derived from well-meaning, but uncontrolled community clean-up operations removing both modern debris and historic heritage items from a site.

O'Halloran, Charmain & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002) Wave Action Impact on Archaeological Sites in a Freshwater Reservoir at Lake Hume, New South Wales. Australian Archaeology in vol. 54, pp. 6–12.

During periods of strong demand the level of water storage is reduced in the Hume Dam Reservoir, exposing Aboriginal heritage sites to wave action. The paper discusses the effects of wave action on normally submerged sites at the bot tom of the reservoir.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Atkinson, John S. (2002) A longitudinal study of Data Management Practices among Parks Management Students. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 19 nª 4, pp. 149–155.

This paper details a longitudinal study into the data management practices of first year students at Charles Sturt University. This study is part of ongoing research investigating the factors and barriers that can influence the successfully adoption of technology into the learning environment. The findings suggest that students are exhibiting poor data management skills and lack the understanding to recover from data loss situations.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). 'Steam to Tonga and Samoa' The Norddeutscher Lloyd Mail Service 1886 to 1893. Albury, N.S.W. : Letao Press. 37pp. ISBN 1 876940 08 5.

A systematic treatise of the history of the first German steamship connection to Samoa. Steam to Tonga and Samoa discusses the history of the service and its implications on postal and transportation history. Contains the first reconstructed time-table of the steam ship service. The book is extensively illustrated with historic photographs and images of philatelic covers.

 
Downing, Jane Jackson, Graham, & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (eds) (2002) New Albury Writing. Poetry and Prose from Albury & District . Albury, N.S.W.: Letao Publishing. softcover, x, 194 pages, 21 cm, ISBN 1 876940 07 7 [Contents]

The Border Region of Albury-Wodonga has a vibrant writing community. This collection of poetry and prose showcases their work. As a companion volume to ReCollecting Albury Writing, it is a snapshot of current writing, with an eye for the future. Established writers, developing writers and young writers are represented in an exciting mix. [book blurp]

Farrell, John (2002) An Iliad of Albury and Other Poems edited by Jane Downing & Dirk H.R. Spennemann. Albury, N.S.W.: Letao Publishing. softcover, xxx, 184 pages, 21cm, ISBN ISBN: 1 876940 06 9 [Contents]

Ephemera is one of the rarest volumes of Australian verse—a single copy is known to exist. An Iliad of Albury and other Poems compiles all poems John Farrell is known to have published while living and working in Albury. This is the first time Farrell's Albury work has been made available to readers since it first appeared in the late nineteenth century. [book blurp]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). Hialeah Forgeries of G.R.I. stamps. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 2, pp. 46–49.

Paper describing a series of modern forgeries of New Zealand occupation overprints of captured German stamp stock

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). Palm Tree Provisional Government Stamps with German Cancels. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 3, p. 69.

The paper describes a set of Samoan Kingdom Palm Trees stamps cancelled with a German date canceller.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). New Manufacture of Samoa Express, German Samoa and Samoa G.R.I. stamps. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 4, p. 86–93.

An examination and documentation of newly created forgeries of various early Samoan stamps.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). The 1890s Market for Samoan Stamps. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 4, p. 94–98.

A review of advertisements of stamp merchants in the Samoan newspapers of the 1890s, examining the nature an extent of the trade in the stamps of the Samoa Express and Davis Post.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Claghorn, Bill (2002). Fournier Forgeries of the 5 Pence Palm issue of 1893. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 3, pp.66–67.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Claghorn, Bill (2002). Fournier Forgery of an early Apia Date Cancel. The Samoa Express. Journal of the Fellowship of Samoa Specialists. vol. 18, nª 3, p. 68.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Taylor, A.Lavar (2002). German Postal Services to Likiep Atoll, Marshall Islands. Vorläufer. in press

The postal history of Likiep Atoll is discussed, usuing examples of hand cancelled 'Atoll Post' covers, as well as other postal covers.

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). Shedding light on the missing years of the Samoan Postal Service 1881–1885. Philately from Australia. vol. 54, nª 4, pp. 93-98.

Discusses the history of the Samoan postal service between the end of the Samoa Times-operated Samoa Express mail service and the beginning of the private post of John Davis. Based on archival sources, this paper is the first serious attempt to illuminate this enigmatic period of Samoan postal history.

,
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002). Germany delivered first stamps in Marshall Islands. The Kwajalein Hourglass vol. 42 nª 50, 25 June 2002, pp. 4-5.

The paper describes the German colonial postage stamps made for use in the Marshall Islands and provides some information of German postal history.

 

2001
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Wheat Varieties Grown in 19th Century Australia. A handlist of varieties. Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Farrer Centre, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Charles Sturt University

XXXX.
PDF file download

Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds) (2001), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/ Association des Musées des Iles du Pacifique. viii, 231 pages. ISBN 982-9056-01-5

A refereed collection of 22 papers dealing with cultural heritage management and cultural interpretation issues in the Pacific.
Over the past twenty years, each of the Pacific Island states has nurtured a rapid evolution in the way it protects and exploits its cultural heritage. Nations do not feel alone: there is often a sense of companionship, from ancient history to experiences in the post-independence era. Urban and other economic development, mass tourism, as well as a new development of a common regional identity, place an increasing strain on the maintenance of each unique heritage. At the same time the increasing volume of overseas visitation allows the host communities to portray their culture and heritage to a wider audience.
While the current situation stimulates the awareness that heritage is in urgent need of management and interpretation, and while there are many successes throughout the region by a variety of players, comparatively little has been written by the stakeholders about the processes and activities they undertake. This book attempts to correct this under-representation.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Neal Putt (2001) Heritage Management and Interpretation in the Pacific. in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/Association des Mus?es des ?les du Pacifique. Pp. 1-10.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Memories, Memorabilia and Monuments: Private, Territorial and Federal Interpretations of the Pacific War in Guam. in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/Association des Mus?es des ?les du Pacifique. Pp. 49-68.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Visitors and their Impact: Protecting Heritage Ecotourism Places from their Clientele. in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/Association des Mus?es des ?les du Pacifique. Pp. 187-228.
Canning, Shaun and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Contested space: social value and the assessment of cultural significance in New South Wales, Australia. in: M.M.Cotter, W.E. Boyd and J.E Gardiner (eds) Heritage Landscapes: Understanding Place and Communities. Proceedings of the Lismore Conference. Lismore, NSW: Southern Cross University Press. Pp. 457-468.
Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) Georg Fritz, A brief biographical Sketch. in: Georg Fritz, The Chamorro. A History and ethnography of the Mariana Islands. edited by Scott Russell. Occasional Historical Papers Series n? 1. Saipan: CNMI Division of Historic Preservation. pp. 103-104.

Brief item presenting biographical data on the first German administrator of the Mariana Islands, Georg Fritz.

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) 15.44. Historic NSW Paper (1): The Hume Elector Times. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter n? 15, December 2001.

Brief bibliographic description of newly discovered issues of this hitherto unknown early 20th century Albury newspaper.

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) 15.45. Historic NSW Paper (2): The Albury Herald. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter n? 15, December 2001.

Brief bibliographic description of newly discovered issues of this rare 19th century Albury newspaper.

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) 15.46. Historic NSW Paper (3): The Revolt. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter n? 15, December 2001.

Brief bibliographic description of a newly discovered issue of this rare 19th century Sydney newspaper.

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2001) 15.47. Historic VIC Paper (1): The Murray and Hume Times. Australian Newspaper History Group Newsletter n? 15, December 2001.

Brief bibliographic description of newly discovered issues of this very rare 19th century Albury and Wodonga newspaper.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) ReCollecting Albury Writers. Biographical Sketches from Albury and its District. Albury, N.S.W.: Letao Publishing. 20 pp, 21cm, ISBN 1 876940 04 2

Biographical sketches of nineteen writers of Albury and the surrounding communities. The booklet is the first publication of its kind in the region
[Full Text:

Look, David W. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Disaster Preparedness, Planning, and Mitigation. Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 (8), pp. 3-4.

Overview of the contents of the special issue of Cultural Resource Management on cultural heritage and natural disasters.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) The creeping disaster: dryland and urban salinity and its impact on heritage. Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 (8), pp. 22-25.

Dryland salinity, and now also urban salinity, have become the bane of much of rural Australia. The human induced natural disaster is caused by alterations of the water regime of many catchments following either massive land clearing or artificial irrigation. Rising water tables dissolve salts trapped in the rock strata and soil column and create highly saline ground water conditions. Historic buildings, archaeological sites and now entire historic towns several hundred miles inland suddenly face marine decay conditions. Foundations are wetted with extremely saline solutions, archaeological sites till in the ground decay because of seasonal fluctuations of ground water tables. Even though the process is slower than that of most natural disasters, the same problems of disaster preparedness and mitigation occur. Because of the slow onset, however, most communities and heritage professionals are in a state of denial, akin to the social phenomena observed for earthquake preparedness.

Hollow, Rosemary. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Managing sites of human atrocity. Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 (8), pp. 35-36.

The paper addresses the management of the remains of sites where human atrocities occurred. Should the traces be removed and a sanitised view b presented or should the places be managed as 'raw' reminders of the past. This issue relates to both human atrocities and to the management of natural disaster sites where human life was lost.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) The Border Post (Albury, NSW) Fiction Index 1856-1885. Albury, N.S.W. : Letao Publishing. ISBN 1 876940 03 4

Founded in 1856, the Border Post was Albury's first newspaper. The range of verse, from doggerel to bush ballads to literary poetry, was a common art form in the mid 19th century. Some of the letters to the editor, as well as some election announcements and even advertisements were expressed in verse. Prose fiction was expensive and was thus limited. This is well reflected in the pages of the Border Post, which focussed on verse over prose in its offerings.
The Border Post (Albury, NSW) Fiction Index 1856–1885 illustrates the wide range of poetry and short fiction offered to the readership, fiction drawn from British, American and Australian papers, magazines and books. The wide scope of the sources used by the Border Post demonstrates the scope of the editors. Far from being a small parochial paper, the Border Post was a major influence shaping the cultural and political development of North-Eastern Victoria and Southern New South Wales. [Full Text: PDF document, courtesy Letao Publishing]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Look, David W., and Graham, Kristy (2001) Perceptions of Heritage Eco-tourism by Micronesian Decision Makers. Johnstone Centre Report Vol. 147. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. ISBN 1 86467 077 0

A questionnaire was administered to the participants of the first Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium in Micronesia (held between 28 February and 3 March 2000 on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The study compares the attitudes and expectations of Micronesian decision mak-ers towards Heritage Eco-Tourism at the beginning and at the end of the symposium.

Lockwood, Michael & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Value conflicts between natural and cultural heritage conservation - Australian experience and the contribution of economics. in: Heritage economics: challenges for heritage conservation and sustainable development in the 21st Century. Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission. Pp. 216-242.

Conflicts between natural and cultural heritage conservation occur across several domains. People disagree over the definitions of terms such as 'natural', 'cultural', and 'wilderness'. There are a range of views on matters of principle, such as whose heritage should be considered, and whether non-negotiable standards should apply to some conservation issues. Clashes of culture occur between various stakeholders: Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, 'mainstream' and minority groups, and amongst professionals from different disciplinary backgrounds. The aspirations and behaviour of traditional owners, environmentalists, recreationists, traditional users, and those who have links with previous uses and sites, can lead to a range of management issues. On public land, management agencies face the difficult task of allocating scarce resources, and are sometimes are forced to decide between natural and cultural heritage. They may also have to address conflicting management objectives.
We discuss each of these domains, and give examples of where such conflicts have influenced Australian cultural and natural heritage conservation. We then identify where economic methods and instruments have the potential to contribute to their resolution. Economics is not very useful for resolving conflicts over definitions, principles, or cultural differences. These matters must be resolved through the various participatory, deliberative, democratic and judicial processes. Economics can be used to justify public investment in heritage management, assist resource allocation and land use decisions, demonstrate the contribution heritage makes to an economy, optimise resource utilisation and establish sound pricing policies for heritage resources. Suitable economic methods for these purposes include non-market valuation and benefit cost analysis, regional economic analysis, cost effectiveness analysis and marginal cost pricing. We suggest education, research and advocacy roles for the AHC in relation to heritage economics and dispute resolution.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Lockwood, Michael & Harris, Kellie (2001) The Eye of the Professional vs. Opinion of the Community Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 no 2, pp. 16-18.

Cultural Heritage Planning in Australia is conducted by specialists drawn from various specialist disciplines. Communities are normally only consulted through public meetings are focus groups. This paper summarises the results of a study where all households in a shire where surveyed by mail to nominate heritage places of interest. The findings showed that community perceptions differed from those held by professionals.
[Full Text:

O'Neill, Jon and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) German Colonial Heritage in Micronesia Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 no 1, pp. 46-47.

Brief article discussing the current approaches to the survival of German cultural heritage resources in Micronesia. The paper identifies the major dissonance between the limited funding and technical expertise available in the countries and the need to prioritise their own indigenous heritage.
[Full Text:

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Look David W., and Graham, Kristy (2001) Heritage Eco-Tourism in Micronesia. Expectations of Government Officials. Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 no 1, pp. 30-32.

A questionnaire was administered to the participants of the first Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium in Micronesia (held between 28 February and 3 March 2000 on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The study looks at the attitudes Micronesian decision makers have towards Heritage Eco-Tourism.
[Full Text:

Handley Bathurst Sterndale, My Adventures and Researches in the Pacific. Edited, annotated and introduced by Jane Downing and Dirk H.R. Spennemann. Mulini Press: Canberra
xliv, 327 pages. ISBN: 0 949910 86 4

Handley Bathurst Sterndale (1829-1878), son of a British indigo planter in India, roamed the Pacific in the mid-19th century. He was marooned on an uninhabited island in the Eastern Pacific, engaged in pearl fishing, and made a voyage from Manihiki (Cooks) to Samoa in an open boat with the notorious "Bully" Hayes, a large New Foundland and a very small poodle. He wrote for newspapers in Australia and New Zealand before his Pacific career ended in a violent showdown while a trader and self-appointed "King" of Suwarrow Atoll in the Cooks.
Sterndale first wrote about his adventures and life, enhanced by fictitious embellishments, in 1871 in a series of weekly instalments for the Australian Town and Country Journal. Although he seems to have destined the work for eventual publication in book form, this never eventuated. Reproduced here in its entirety, Sterndale's series takes us through his experiences, his erudition and his vast imagination. Embedded in his narrative is the first piece of Pacific fiction written from an islanders' point of view.

[book blurb and ordering information]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Mrs. "Rolf Boldrewood's" The Flower Garden in Australia. Margin nª 53, April 2001, pp. 10-21.

The paper summarises the Albury period of Margaret Browne, wife of the police magistrate and novelist Thomas A Browne (aka Rolf Boldrewood), detailing her gardens and exhibitions of flowers at the annual Albury Shows. Towards the end of her 10-year stay in Albury, she published 'The Flower Garden in Australia,' the first Australian gardening book ever written by a woman.
Full Text:

Spennemann, Dirk H.R.(2001) Mary Braddon's novels in the Abury Banner. Albury and District Historical Society Bulletin no. 401 (April 2001), p.3; nª 402 (May 2001), p.3.

Indexing of fiction run by the Abury Banner and Wodonga Express between 1860 and 1900 showed that of all authors serialised by the newspaper the sensasionalist writer Mary Braddon dominated the pages. The article briefly discusses the Albury serialisations in an Australian context.
Full Text:

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Conservation Needs Assessment Vandalised Statue of Melpomene, Albury Botanic Gardens. Johnstone Centre Report nª 199. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

A conservation needs assessment of repair works for the Statue of Melpomene, Albury Botanic Gardens, which had been vandalised. The statue had been pushed off the pedestal and had broke to pieces. This work was carried out pro bono as part of the author's commitment to local heritage issues.

 

2000
O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000)
Conservation Assessment of the Joachim De Brum House, Likiep Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Johnstone Centre Report n? 151. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. ISBN 1 86467 085 1.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) The Marshall Islands in: Steve Gilbert (ed.), Tattooing History Source Book. New York: Juno Books. Pp. 163-171.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). A 19th century excavation of a burial mound on Penrhyn (Tongareva), Cook Islands. Archaeology in New Zealand 43(2), 139-143.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Hundertwasser. Art, Architecture and Heritage in Bad Soden, Germany. The Journal of Architecture 5, pp. 117-136.

Without doubt, the 1993-completed "Hundertwasser in den Wiesen" in Bad Soden (Germany) constitutes a radical departure from standard condominium development, established western building design principles and and provides a conceptual and visual challenge to citizen and visitor alike. The pueblo design avoids to the maximum extent possible the use of horizontal and geometrical forms. The building complex according to Hundertwasser conceptualised as a reunfication of human living with natural principles incorporates a historic heritage-listed structure.
This paper discusses the building, both from the view of architecture and art, followed by an introduction to the architect/artist and his work. A description of the controversies surrounding the structure follows, giving way to a discussion of various aspects of heritage and heritage management with special emphasis on issues relating to the treatment of an adjacent heritage listed building. Some observations on the future of the Hundertwasser complex conclude the paper.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Eight-inch Coastal Defense Guns in Micronesia. Coast Defense Study Group Journal 14(2), 40-64.

Paper describing the Italian-built but British-pattern battleship guns, which were emplaced as coastal defense guns by the Japanese Navy on Chuuk, Tarawa and Wake Island during World War II. The paper discusses the origin, history and current status of the guns.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as a future woody weeds in Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40(6), 889-901

The recent thrust to develop an Australian olive industry has resulted in the wide-spread planting of olive (Olea europaea europaea) orchards. In some places such as the Adelaide hills, feral olives have become established as a major environmental weed. This paper reviews the international literature on the cultivation of olives with particular reference to reports on the activity of vertebrate (principally avian) olive predators and their potential as vectors for spreading this plant into Australian remnant bushland. The effects of feralisation on the olive plant which enhance its capacity for dispersal as a weed, control of olives as woody weeds and obligations of olive producers to the future are discussed.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (2000) The avian dispersal of olives Olea europaea: Implications for Australia. Emu 100(4), pp. 264-273.

Around the Mediterranean olives are an important food source for birds, and are now emerging as a significant component of the diet of some Australian frugivores. Attempts over the past 200 years to establish an olive oil industry in Australia have led to many neglected olive groves which have become havens for frugivorous birds. Worldwide, olives have proved to be a successful invader of disturbed lands, with birds as the principal seed vectors. A proliferation of new olive orchards in the 1990s and the effect of naturalisation on the size of olive drupes has the potential, with help from the avian fauna, to accelerate the dispersal of this woody weed in Australia.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998 [2000]) Japanese economic exploitation of Central Pacific Atoll seabird populations 1898-1915 Pacific Studies Vol. 21(1/2), pp. 1-41.

At the turn of the century Japanese feather collectors visited most isolated atolls of the Central Pacific Ocean. The bird populations of these atolls were decimated to supply the demand of the market for exotic feathers created by the European fashion industry. This paper reviews the history and dimensions of the feather trade in the Central Pacific and describes the responses of the affected nations.

Downing, Jane & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (eds) (2000) ReCollecting Albury Writing. Poetry and Prose from Albury & District 1859 to 2000. Albury, N.S.W.: Letao Publishing. xvi, 214 pp, 21cm, ISBN 1 876940 00 X [Contents]
[book blurp]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (2000) From cultivar to weed: the spread of olives in Australia. Olivae 82, 44-56.

Paper discussing the weed potential of cultivated olives in Australia. Also published in French, Italian and Spanish editions.
De l'olivier cultive a l'olivier sauvage: la diffusion des oliviers en Australie. Olivae (Edition Francaise) 82, 44-56.
Il passagio dall'olivo selvatico all'olivo domestico: la progazione dell'oliva in Australia. Olivae (Edizzione Italiana) 82, 44-56.
De olivo cultivado al asilvestrado: la diffusion del olivo en Australia. Olivae (Ediciõn Española) 82, 44-56

Look, David W. & Spenneman, Dirk H.R. (2000) Disaster Preparedness for Cultural Properties. Cultural Resource Management 23(6) 3-5.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) 1905 typhoon kills over 200 Marshallese. Marshall Islands Journal 31(13), 14-15.
Look, David W. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium, Rota, Feb. 28-Mar. 3, 2000. Cultural Resource Management 23(3), 35.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Memories, Memorabilia and Monuments: Private, Territorial and Federal Interpretations of the Pacific War in Guam. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) The four Axiomata for the management of Cultural Heritage Places. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Visitor Management Plans. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Promoting Heritage: Strategies for Subliminal Marketing. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Visitors and their Impact: Protecting Heritage Ecotourism Places from their Clientele. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Aurora Australis. The German Period in the Mariana Islands 1899-1914. Division of Historic Preservation Occasional Historical Papers Series nª 5. Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Division of Historic Preservation.
viii, 247 pp, 5x7 in. ISBN 1-878453-36-X.

[book blurp and ordering information]

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Centenary of olive processing at Charles Sturt University. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Charles Sturt University. 16pp. Second edition.

Revised reprint of a booklet setting out the history of the olivetum and olive production at the former Wagga Agricultural Experimental Farm, now Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga Campus. Describes the olivetum and lists the olive varieties planted there, and summarises the history of olive research carried out at Wagga Wagga.  

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Combining science with education: the beginnings of agricultural extension in 1890s New South Wales (Australia). Rural Society 10(2), 175-194.

Agricultural extension started in New South Wales (Australia) with the commencement of the Department of Agriculture in 1890 and the establishment of a body of scientists to answer farmers' queries and to educate farmers in their findings. This paper charts the beginnings of extension and the various concepts developed, highlighting the contributions of Nathan A. Cobb (1859-1932).

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane (2000) Creating a media persona in 19th century colonial Australasia: the case of Handley Bathurst Sterndale. Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin 24(1), 50-67.

The role of regional and colonial newspapers as means of opinion creation and modification is well documented. As is still practice today, editorials and invited/solicited series on various topics created a public discussion which informed and directed public opinion. Whilst this is most commonly done to further political ambitions, there are examples designed to further a career for personal gain rather than political power and fame. This is the case with Handley Bathurst Sterndale, born 1829 in India. His oeuvre includes newspaper serials in the Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney) (1871-72); the Daily Southern Cross (Auckland) (1874) and the New Zealand Herald (Auckland) (1877). In this paper his writings will be analysed to show how he created a media persona and gained sufficient credibility that eventually led an invitation to furnish a formal background paper on Pacific Island Trade for the New Zealand Parliament. This in turn led to a partnership with a trading firm which placed him in sole control a Pacific Atoll.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Book Review: Tampke, Jürgen (editor), 'Ruthless Warfare.' German military planning and surveillance in the Australia-New Zealand region before the Great War. Documents edited an introduced by Jürgen Tampke. Canberra, Southern Highlands Publishers, 1998. 5. Journal of Pacific History 35(1), pp. 123-124
Howard, Jonathon, Mitchell, David, Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Webster-Mannison, Marci (2000) Is today shaping tommorrow for tertiary education in Australia? a comparison of policy and practice. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 1(1), 83-96.

The Commonwealth Government of Australia appears to be moving to environmental education for a sustainable future. Using the new environmental campus of Charles Sturt University in New South Wales as a case study, this paper outlines how one Australian university is providing sustainability in higher education by integrating its designs, operations and teaching practices. In doing so, it shows recent initiatives in the higher education sector and highlights the gap between the what Commonwealth government regards could enhance the national effort and what is happening on the ground.

Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). Meeting local needs? a study of a communication project established in the Pacific Islands. Public Administration and Development 20(3), pp. 185–195.

The Internet has become a major source and vehicle for technological transfer and project development during the 1990s. Three Pacific Island countries - Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu - were connected through Pactok, an inexpensive computer mediated communications (CMC) system originally developed for non-government organisations through the Pacific Sustainable Development Networking Project (PSDNP). The PSDNP was established by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1993 and funded by UNDP until December 1996.
Content analysis of the Project Document indicated that although the PSDNP aimed to improve access by these countries to scientific and technical information, an important underlying theme was to ensure these Pacific Island countries were connected to the Internet. It also appeared that the agency was keen for organisations in these countries to increase access to international information, with little regard for local and regional sources.
Subsequent analysis of Pactok sites early in 1997 showed that the PSDNP had encouraged the project?s primary stakeholders - regional organisations and NGOs - to join Pactok. However, international agencies such as UNDP and other foreign assistance agencies also have access to Pactok, and so be able to disseminate agency ideologies, objectives and priorities directly to users in Pacific Island countries.

Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). Getting wired: a Pacific Islands study. Australian Journal of Communications 27(3), pp. 91-105.

The paper explores why people in the Pacific Islands have connected to the Internet. It is based on theories concerning computer mediated communication and the debate between technological and social determinists, and an intermediate approach, in developing and disseminating new technology.
Quantitative and qualitative research was carried out during 1997 in five Pacific Island countries - Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu - which were connected to the Pactok computer communications system. Pactok connections and support in Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu were funded through the Pacific Sustainable Development Networking Project (PSDNP) during 1994 and 1995, while it was established by institutions with little funding suport in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.
Quantitative studies of Pactok sites early in 1997 showed that the PSDNP encouraged regional organisations and non-government organisations to join Pactok., as well as national and international aid agencies. Later surveys, distributed by electronic mail and air mail, indicated that over half of the users were not Pacific Islanders, and that they tended to look outside the region for information sought through Pactok. They also highlighted the predominance of the English language on the Internet.
Lastly, the surveys highlighted major reasons for organisations joining Pactok: to save on telecommunication costs and to contact other organisations outside the region. This was contrary to the objectives of the PSDNP, which sought to connect users to the Internet to help them access technical and economic information for sustainable development.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]
Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a Collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]
 

1999
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998[1999]) Excessive harvesting of Pacific seabird populations at the turn of the 20th century Marine Ornithology 26: 49-57.

At the turn of the century, the uninhabited atolls of the Central Pacific were visited by Japanese feather and plumage collectors, whose actions devastated the bird populations. An assessment of the historic record shows that between 1897 and 1914 over 3.5 million seabirds were killed in the Central Pacific in the name of fashion. While the populations have recovered on some atolls, other islands do not show the original species diversity. Today the survival of the breeding colonies is again threatened as changing global climatic conditions bring about an increased chance that the remaining populations on the generally very low-lying atolls could come under threat from typhoons and storm surges, rather than the anthropogenic disasters of the past. Yet, without knowledge of the historic developments the current distribution of some species could not be understood.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Exploitation of bird plumages in the German Mariana Islands. Micronesica Vol. 31(2), 309–318.

At the turn of the century, the uninhabited atolls of the Central Pacific were visited by Japanese feather and plumage collectors, whose actions devastated the bird populations. An assessment of the historic record shows that between 1897 and 1914 over 3.5 million seabirds were killed in the Central Pacific in the name of fashion. While the populations have recovered on some atolls, other islands do not show the original species diversity. Today the survival of the breeding colonies is again threatened as changing global climatic conditions bring about an increased chance that the remaining populations on the generally very low-lying atolls could come under threat from typhoons and storm surges, rather than the anthropogenic disasters of the past. Yet, without knowledge of the historic developments the current distribution of some species could not be understood.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Zu einer neolithische Kulturerscheinung Polynesiens - Ein Beitrag zum Kulturwandel der Lapita-Kultur. in: F.-R.Herrmann (ed.), Festschrift für Günter Smolla Materialien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte von Hessen nª 8 Wiesbaden: Landesamt für Bodendenkmalpflege. Vol II., pp. 679-696.

The chapter discusses the initial human settlement on Samoa and Tonga and argues that after an initial phase of settlements near the shore line, people developed the horticultural potential of the hinterland and, over time, moved inland. [As the manuscript for the paper had been submitted in December 1982 much of the paper content is outdated, largely proven correct and supplanted by the findings of my own PhD thesis in 1990).

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) No room for the dead. Burial practices in a constrained environment. Anthropos 94(1), 35-56.

The amount of land available on the atolls of the Marshall Islands is very limited and fertile land is few. Traditionally, the land was not enough to permit the interment of all dead and so the less important commoners were afforded a burial at sea. With the onset of Christianisation everybody was afforded a burial on land, leading to cemeteries being erected at marginal locations, today often eroding into the sea. The paper reviews the available information on prehistoric, traditional and modern burial customs and discusses the implications of current population growth on the present and future burial needs of the Marshallese population.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) British Naval Heritage in Micronesia-The coastal defense guns of the Marshalls, Pohnpei and Chuuk. Coast Defense Study Group Journal 13(1), 34-56.

Paper outlining the nature and origin of Japanese coastal defense guns emplaced on the atolls of the Marshall Islands. The vast majority of the guns stem from British warships which had been bought by the Japanese in prior to World War I and which had to be decommissioned following the Washington Treaty of 1922.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Cultural heritage conservation during emergency management: luxury or necessity? International Journal of Public Administration 22(1), 745-804.

Annually natural disasters cause loss of life, damage to property and damage to the environment. Concomitant is damage to the cultural heritage property, both items and places. Yet in the wake of a disaster containment and response efforts put additional cultural resources at risk--usually due to ignorance rather than malice on the part of the disaster manager or the property owners. This paper reviews the effects of natural disasters on heritage sites and argues for increased awareness and training for disaster managers.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Mitigation of salt damage to the historic built environment. in:PUR$L Productive use and rehabilitation of saline land. Nico E. Marcar and A.K.M. Afzal Hossain (eds), Managing saltland into the 21st century: Dollars and Sense from Salt. Proceedings 5th national conference Tamworth, NSW, Australia, 9th to 13th March 1998. Canberra: National Committee for the Productive Use and Rehabilitation of Saline Land. Pp. 13-19.

Urban salinity is exacting its toll on the historic environment that makes our country towns so different from the sprawling suburbia of the metropolitan cities. Historic buildings are very susceptible to raised saline ground water levels. This paper reviews the nature of the threat and the extent of the impending change, and discusses the relative merits of the various mitigation options available not only in terms of cost to the community, but also in terms of the ethical management of our irreplaceable cultural heritage.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Marcar, Nico (1999) Urban and heritage landscapes. Under the saline threat. Natural Resource Management 2(1), 14-17.

Human-induced dryland and irrigation salinity are major forms of land degradation in rural areas, particularly in southern Australia. Salinity is also impacting significantly on the historic environment that makes Australia's country towns so different from the sprawling suburbia of larger cities. It is not only historic buildings but also formal private gardens and street plantings that are being affected and placed at risk. This is because many plants, especially those introduced to Australia and commonly used in these situations, are susceptible to elevated soil salinity levels. Any changes in the vegetative make up of Australian towns are likely to alter their character. This paper reviews the nature of the threat and the extent of the impending change, and discusses the relative merits of the various mitigation options available.
  

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Building a Model Colony. An Overview of the German Period in the Mariana Islands. Presented at Northern Marianas Council for the Humanities History Teachers' Institute 21 August 1999 'The German Era, 1889-1914'. Mangilao, Guam and Saipan: Northern Marianas Council for the Humanities. 40pp. blockquote>Booklet setting out the principal historic, social and economic trends during the German colonial rule in the Mariana Islands. The booklet was created as a background document for high school teachers teaching Mariana Islands history.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Centenary of German Annexation of the Carolines. Marshall Islands Journal 30(42), 18.

Article written for the Marshall Islands weekly newspaper describing the German annexation of the Caroline Islands, Palau and the Marianas following the purchase from Spain one hundred years ago.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Centenary of olive processing at Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW: Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Charles Sturt University. 16pp.

Booklet setting out the history of the olivetum and olive production at the former Wagga Agricultural Experimental Farm, now Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga Campus. Describes the olivetum and lists the olive varieties planted there, and summarises the history of olive research carried out at Wagga Wagga.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) A brief history of the introduction of olives to Australia. Olivae(English edition) 77, pp. 22-28.

An illustrated summary of the history of the introduction of olives to the various states of Australia and the role of the olive industry in the agricultural development of the country.
Also published in French, Italian and Spanish:
Brève histoire de l'introduction des Oliviers en Australie. Olivae (Edition Française) 77, pp. 22-28.
Breve storia dell'introduzione dell'oliva in Australia. Olivae (Edizzione Italiana) 77, pp. 22-28.
Breve historia de la introducción del olivo en Australia. Olivae (Edición Española) 77, pp. 22-28.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Downing, Jane (1999). Unmasking transient colonial authors: the case of Handley Bathurst Sterndale. Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand Bulletin 23(3), 148-163.

Nineteenth century colonial newspapers relied heavily on correspondents and contributions by the general public for special feature articles. While some of these contributions and serials carry by-lines with true names or well-known pseudonyms, the attribution of others is more complicated. This was especially so in the example provided here, an 1871 contribution to the Australian Town and Country Journal, where the author had only spent a short time in Australia and was only a transient resident of Sydney.
Textual analysis provided a number of promising clues that led nowhere due to the author's deliberate attempts at obfuscation in his supposed real life adventures. A systematic verification of all claims and allusions made in the serial through a comparison with contemporary publications which could have served as sources, led to the positive identification of the author: Handley Bathurst Sterndale (1829-1878), well known to Pacific historians as the author of an influential New Zealand parliamentary paper of 1874.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane (1999) Literary Detection: Discovering the identity of a 'Master Mariner'. Margin 47, pp. 8-13.

The paper discusses the process which led to the successful identification of th author a 1870s serialised story published in the Australian Town and Country Journal, a regional newspaper published in Sydney. A systematic verification of all claims and allusions made in the serial through a comparison with contemporary publications which could have served as sources, led to the positive identification of the author: Handley Bathurst Sterndale (1829-1878), well known to Pacific historians as the author of an influential New Zealand parliamentary paper of 1874.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Book review: Medizin und Kolonialimperialismus. Deutschland 1884-1945. By Wolfgang U. Eckart. Paderborn -- München -- Wien -- Zürich, Ferdinand Schöningh, 1997. 638pp, tables, figs, maps, notes, bibliog., index. ISBN: 3-506-72181-X. Journal of Pacific History Vol. 34(2):233-234.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) An Annotated Compendium of German Language Sources on the German Protectorate of the Marshall Islands Vol 1: Bibliography. Charles Sturt University, The Johnstone Centre, Albury, NSW.

A bibliography compiled for the Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office. The indexed bibliography contains 483 entries of German language publications of all fields of science and the humanities, as well as fiction, dealing with the Marshall Islands. All records have been annotated or summarised by the author.[The other 18 volumes of the compilation are photocopy reproductions of the original sources].

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Welcome to the global classroom! Teaching in the 3rd millennium. Education at a Distance 13(1), 11-19.

The paper discusses the educational concepts and structural implications for the university sector, posed by the on-line teaching environment. It provides examples and suggests scenarios as to what future universities may look like

 

1998
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) "Nothing is more permanent than a posthole" or: A contribution to the archaeology of the Common or Garden hole. in: M. Schmidt (ed.), "Geschichte heißt; So ist's gewesen! abgesehen von dem wie `s war. Geburtstagsgrüße für Günter Smolla. Archäologische Berichte 11. Bonn: R.Habelt. Pp. 1-40

Based on several excavations, this paper reviews the archaeological evidence for house structures on Tongatapu. The only indisputable evidence for houses was encountered on Pangaimotu, where it seems likely that an oval-shaped building without central posts, as well as a rectangular building (fale fakafefine or fale fakafuna), can be documented.
The excavations at Ha'ateiho yielded a large number of circular discolourations which do not align into discernible patterns. Some of these discolourations are postholes, while most are planting holes. Based on the distribution of the density of the holes, it seems likely that some buildings existed to the southeast of mound TO-At-85 and to the north and northwest of mound TO-AT-86. However, this study shows that trying to distinguish between postholes and planting holes in the non-mounded area is fraught with problems. Despite a range of approaches taken, no distinction could be made which was valid beyond reasonable doubt.
However, the excavations at TO-At-85, albeit unintentionally, have helped to understand matters I did not intend to find out: that the average Tongan yams planting hole is 53 cm deep, has a diameter of 30.5 cm, possesses a bowl- or basin-shaped bottom, has no slant, and is filled with soils of rather varied compactness.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) German Colonial Heritage in Micronesia in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report 123, 45.
Lipscombe, Neil, Cosgriff, Kevin, Klomp, Nick, Spennemann, Dirk H.R.(1998) Eurobodalla National Park, NSW, Lake Brou. Day Use and Camping Facilities. Design Proposal and review of Environmental Factors. Johnstone Centre Report 112. 64 pp.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R.(1998) The potential impacts of proposed recreation facilities on cultural heritage sites at Lake Brou, Narooma, Eurobodalla National Park. Johnstone Centre Report 111.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) "Is there a Problem.?" Urban Salinity and Heritage in the Murray-Darling Basin in: Conference Proceedings "Urban salinity, a snapshot of the future" Wagga Wagga, 11 and 12 August 1998, Albury: Australian Association of Natural Resource Management. Pp. 153-163.

The perceptions of heritage managers related to the incidence of salinity and its impact on heritage were surveyed in 149 local government areas (LGAs) in the Murray-Darling Basin. They survey administered in December 1997 and January 1998 (response rate 76%) showed that salinity is seen primarily as a rural problem affecting agriculturally productive land. The threat of salinity to heritage structures was ranked similar to domestic homes, roads and the like.

In comparison to other threats impacting on the cultural heritage places in the LGAs salinity was seen as one on the smallest threats, only exceeded by earthquakes. The study found high levels of 'don't know' answers, indicating that education needs exist, but that these needs are varied in the community of heritage officers.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Urban Salinity and Cultural Heritage: Studying the impact of an anthropogenic disaster in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report 123, 46.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Mitigating salt attack in our historic environment. in Nico Marcar (ed.) Managing saltland into the 21st century (Tamworth 10-12 March 1998) Conference Papers [Preprints]. Canberra: CSIRO, Forestry and Forest Products. pp. 13-18.

Urban salinity is exacting its toll on the historic environment that makes our country towns so different from the sprawling suburbia of the metropolitan cities. Historic buildings are very susceptible to raised saline ground water levels. This paper reviews the nature of the threat and the extent of the impending change, and discusses the relative merits of the various mitigation options available not only in terms of cost to the community, but also in terms of the ethical management of our irreplaceable cultural heritage.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) The olive grove at Charles Sturt University. Bulletin of the Wagga Wagga Historical Society 312:4-8.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (1998) From food to weed in 150 years: Human and non-human dispersal of olives in Australia in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report 123, 49.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Cultural heritage management of unexploded ammunition. CRM Bulletin 21(8), 48-51.

The paper reviews the issues of unexploded ordnance removal at and near heritage sites and provides options for action, aimed at safe guarding life and property of visitors and heritage managers while at the same time not unduly impairing the heritage items.
[Full text:

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. I. Biology and History. Johnstone Centre Report 100. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. II. Distances, rate and vectors of seed dispersal. Johnstone Centre Report 101. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. III. Impact on heritage resources and eradication. Johnstone Centre Report no. 120. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Japanese poaching and the enforcement of German souvereignty in the Marshall Islands Journal of Pacific History 38(1): 51-67.

In the first decade of the 20th century Japanese plumage hunters visited many of the uninhabited Central Pacific atolls depleting the local bird populations. When a group of Marshallese engaged in traditional birding surprised a group of Japanese on remote Bokak Atoll in 1909, the German colonial administrator was forced to deal with the issue without guidance from Berlin. This paper describes the events and reviews the German actions in the light of similar incidents in Hawaii.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) History and Ecology: Early 20th century Exploitation of Seabirds on Pacific Atolls in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report 123, 47.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) A note on a 19th century sighting of a ground-dwelling bird on Bokak, the northernmost atoll of the Marshall IslandsCorella 17(1), 44-45. 21. 87pp.

The paper reviews archival evidence on the 19th century sighting of a flightless bird, presumably a rail or megapode species, on Bokak Atoll, Marshall Islands.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) The effects of the 1871-72 earthquakes on the Southern Riverina. An overview of historical and anecdotal data. Johnstone Centre Report 102. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
       
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1998) Disaster management programs for historic sites San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. 195 pp. ISBN 1-893076-00-8
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Conservation management and mitigation of the impact of tropical cyclones on archaeological sites in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites. San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 113-133.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1998) From Conflict to dialogue, from dialogue to cooperation, from cooperation to preservation in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites , San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 175-188.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Natural Disaster Mitigation and Cultural Heritage: a course proposal in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites , San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 151-164.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1998) Managing disasters and managing disaster responses: an introduction in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites , San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 1-6.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1998) Preface. in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites , San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. iii–vi.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Green, David G. (1998) A special interest network for natural hazard mitigation for cultural heritage sites. in:Dirk H.R. Spennemann and David W.Look (eds), Disaster management programs for historic sites. San Francisco and Albury, NSW: Association for Preservation Technology, Western Chapter and Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 165-172.
Midgley, Emma, Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Johnstone, Harvey (1998) The impact of visitors on Aboriginal Sites in Mungo National Park. Archaeology in Oceania 33(3), 221-231.

Visitor impact is an inherent and dynamic component of cultural heritage management whenever cultural sites are accessed by people. Mungo National Park has become the focus of some 35,000 visitors per year. The impacts these visitors have on the archaeological record is investigated in this study. A series of fourteen mock sites, composed of stone artefact and bone scatters, were created in the park and the impacts that visitors had on these sites were monitored over a five month period. The results indicate that high visitation areas are subject to a variety of impacts, and site components are frequently moved, turned over, clustered and pilfered. Recognition of these impacts can lead to improvements in the management and conservation of archaeological sites.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Taffee, Richard (1998) Managing childrens' interactions with cultural heritage placesJournal of Park and Recreation Administration 16(2): 73-87.

The impact of children on cultural heritage places is a phenomenon dreaded by parks managers. Children's means of exploring and comprehending the world around them is much more direct and less abstract than that of adults. By understanding children's learning behaviour the processes leading to a detrimental impact can not only be avoided, but moreover be turned into a positive experience for children and parents alike. Parks Management can be informed by experiences garnered in the fields of museum interpretation and education in zoological and marine parks.
The mere provision of textual and pictorial information is limiting the learning experience of children, as well as that of many adults. Show-cased specimens of artefacts are illustrative to an adult audience, they are 'remote' for children. Management needs to provide for controlled environments in which children can satisfy their needs of examining artefacts and sensitive items on their terms through touch tables and other interactive displays forcing the adoption of different postures etc. If well done, this satisfies children's need for physical exploration and reduces impact in the open space setting.
For geographically remote parks there is a need to provide an outlet for children to 'let off steam' after a long trip in the car. The establishment of an adventure playground would be desirable, preferably designed with thematic reference to the specific park visited.

Park infrastructure must address children's learning and energy dissipation needs through the provision of interpretation centres and (outside) activity areas appropriate to children of various ages.
This needs to be coupled with information and guidelines for parents visiting parks, including strategies to control and channel children's actions and energy through (i) careful planning of the trip and the approaches to the park; (ii) planning of activities at arrival and (iii) guidelines for appropriate parental control during the visit.
Parents will have a better visitor experience if their children are engaged in a captivating learning experience. Such children will be less demanding of parental control and their parents will have more time to follow their own interests. It follows that such parents will also be more responsive to issues of nature and cultural conservation.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane (1998) Cyclopean Ruins and Remains on the Caroline Islands. The ruins of Nan Madol and Lelu in the 1860s as seen through the eyes of 'A Master Mariner' MARC Working Papers Vol. 74. Agana: Richard F. Taitano Micronesian Area Research Center, University of Guam.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Downing, Jane (1998) Editing a 19th century serial: from Antiquarian research to boys' own adventure in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report 123, 48.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) The annexation of Eneen-kio (Wake Island, Central Pacific Ocean) by the United States of America Journal of Pacific History 38(2), 239-247. 21. 87pp.

The paper details the history of the discovery of Wake Island and the early European utilisation of the island. Against the backdrop of German colonial history in Micronesia the annexation by the United States of America is described and its legality discussed. It is concluded that annexation of the island was probably unlawful, but that with the passage of time the status quo thus established can no longer be undone.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobbis Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. I. Biology and History. Johnstone Centre Report 100.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Japanese poaching and the enforcement of German souvereignty in the Marshall Islands Journal of Pacific History 38(1): 51-67.

In the first decade of the 20th century Japanese plumage hunters visited many of the uninhabited Central Pacific atolls depleting the local bird populations. When a group of Marshallese engaged in traditional birding surprised a group of Japanese on remote Bokak Atoll in 1909, the German colonial administrator was forced to deal with the issue without guidance from Berlin. This paper describes the events and reviews the German actions in the light of similar incidents in Hawaii.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) An officer, yes; but a gentleman.? A biographical sketch of Eugen Brandeis, Military adviser, imperial judge and administrator in the German Colonial Service in the South PacificPacific Island Studies Monographs 21. 87pp.

Biography of the German Colonial Administrator Eugen Brandeis. The book sets out the role of Brandeis in the Marshall Islands addressing his attitudes towards the Marshallese (in the 1902 Mejit Affair), and towards corporal punishment (he was accused of being a 'flogger' in British post WWI cicrles). Brandeis' management of the aftermath of a typhoon (June 1905) as well as his handling of international trade affairs should him to be hamfisted and engaging in brinkmanship.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) On-line study packages for distance education. Some considerations of conceptual parameters. American Journal of education by distance 12(8)
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Montfort, Lesley (1998) Study duration of Post-graduate distance education degrees offered by Australian Universities. Education at a Distance 12(9), 16-19.

Paper reviewing the average duration of graduate diplomas and masters by coursework degrees at Australian Universities. The study found that past-time studied graduate diplomas were completed were completed faster than the expected time frame of cmpletion while masters degree took longer than scheduled. Implications of this are discussed.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Education, National Strategic Reserves and the Australia's budget deficitSocial Alternatives 17(1):44-45.
 

1997
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & W.R. Ambrose (1997) Sea-borne obsidian transport and its implications on the interpretation of Pacific prehistory. Antiquity 71, 188-193.

A piece of pumice encountered among other drift material on Nadikdik Atoll, Marshall Islands, was found to have a large chunk of obsidian attached to it. As the atoll had been devastated by a typhoon and associated storm surge in 1905 the deposition of the piece must have occurred by sea-borne transport in the last 90 years. The paper discusses this and similar incidence of raw material distributed by ocean drift. While occurrence of obsidian in far-flung places is likely to have been caused by human transport, sea-borne dispersal cannot be excluded offhand.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) German colonial observations on walls and house sites in the interior of Upolu, Samoa. Archaeology in New Zealand 40(2): 134-135.

Paper presenting extracts from a German German colonial newspaper report on the agricultural productivity of Upolu, Samoa, which contains observations on walls and house sites in the interior of the island.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Urban Salinity as a threat to cultural heritage places. A primer on the mechanics and effects of chloridation. Albury, NSW: Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 14pp. ISBN: 1 875 758 47 X
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Compounding the effect of dryland salinity: manurial applications of salt in the 19th century. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report 97, 1-14. ISBN: 1 875758 64 X
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) And the walls came tumbling and crumbling down: Dryland and urban salinity as a threat to the historical heritage of the Southern Riverina in: Jim Pratley (ed.), Proceedings of the 1996 Annual Conference of the Riverina Academy of Sciences Wagga Wagga., Wagga Wagga: Charles Sturt University. Pp. 1-16.

Dryland salinity not only poses a threat to the productivity of pastures and arable land, but also affects the built environment, both current infrastructure components such as roads and bridges and our historic heritage. Many historic buildings are prone to the ingress of moisture and the concomitant deleterious effects of the moisture on associated fabric. The soluble salts in the ground water pose an even greater threat when they are introduced via capillary action into historic or modern fabric. Associated with the seasonal fluctuations of the high ground water table will be shrinking and swelling of the soil substrate which will affect the stability of the foundations, and may cause differential settlement of parts of a structure. Further, the moisture saturated subsoils underneath structures are prone to liquefaction during earthquake events, amplifying the effects of the ground motion and causing structures to partially subside and to fail. There is an urgent need for town planners and heritage managers to appreciate the potential dangers posed by dryland salinity and rising ground water tables. Mitigative action is required now. Failure to act will result in substantial elements of our built heritage literally crumbling in front of our eyes.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Proactive Cultural Heritage Management: "Advertising" options for Pacific Island Countries Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 81.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Meyenn, Robert J. & Vusoniwailala, Kate (1997) Melanesian Cultural Heritage Management Programme. Programme Proposal. Final Report. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 74.
  
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Meyenn, Robert J. & Vusoniwailala, Kate (1997) Melanesian Cultural Heritage Management Programme. LOGFRAME Matrices Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 75.
  
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Aspects of Indigenous Cultural Heritage Management in Australia in: Commonwealth of Australia, Joint Committee on Native Title and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Land Fund. Offical Hansard Report for the hearing in Melbourne on 24 October 1997, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. NT, Pp. 909-917.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Encyclopedia Entry: "2.II.8.h-ii Tongan: fence" in P.Oliver (ed.), Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. 2 Cultures and Habitats. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge Pp. 1124
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Encyclopedia Entry: "2.II.5.j. Marshalls: colonial (Marshalls)" in P.Oliver (ed.), Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. 2 Cultures and Habitats. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge Pp. 1162
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Encyclopedia Entry: "2.II.5.i. Marshallese (Marshalls)" in P.Oliver (ed.), Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. 2 Cultures and Habitats. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge Pp. 1161-1162
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Encyclopedia Entry: "2.II.8.h-iii Tongan: outhouses" in P.Oliver (ed.), Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. 2 Cultures and Habitats. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge Pp. 1124-1125
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Report on the skeletal remains from the personel shelter (site 115) and from the Reuter's Island, Shore Taroa Island, Maloelap Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands in: Adams, William, H., Ross, Richard, E., Krause, Elisabeth, L. and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (eds), Micronesian Resources Study, Marshall Islands Archaeology. The Japanese Airbase on Taroa Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1937-1945: an evaluation of World War II Remains., San Francisco, Calif. : Micronesian Endowment for Historic Preservation, US National Park Service. Pp. 128-131.

During the survey for the Micronesian Cultural Resources Study small remains of human bone were encountered inside the concrete anti-bomb personnel shelter associated with barracks building A of the Japanese airbase on Taroa Island, Maloelap Atoll. The report provides a description of the bone fragments, which were too small to yield any meaningful measurements.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) A Holocene sea-level history for Tongatapu, Kingdom of Tonga. in: Alan M. Sherwood, Russell Howorth and Peter Rodda (eds), Coastal and Environmental Geoscience Studies of the Southwest Pacific Islands, Suva, Fiji: South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission Technical Bulletin 9, 115-153. (ISBN: 0378 6447).

A Holocene sea-level history for Tongatapu is presented which is based on the compilation of previously published data on the emergence of coral reefs and on the results of recently conducted fieldwork on the species composition and shell size distribution of molluscs over time. Because the dates on the corals represent death ages, they can only provide a terminus post quem for the drop in sealevel and cannot be used for a detailed reconstruction of the sealevel history in the times thereafter. The molluscs contained in archaeological shell-middens, however, provide a record of the nature and extent of environmental change on Tongatapu since human settlement, i.e. over the past 3500 years. This study is complemented by the analysis of transects of soil profiles and an assessment of the topography of a former lagoonal entrance.
Based on radiocarbon dates on emerged corals and on buried sand beaches, this study has been able to confirm Taylor's (1978) assessment of a Holocene sealevel maximum of at least 2.2 m above present MSL. Wave solution notches suggest that a sealevel maximum of as much as 3.7 m above MSL is possible. The rising Holocene sealevel attained a level equal to the present level before 7000 cal BP and reached its maximum (2.2 m above present) by about 7000 cal BP (see Appendix 2 for conventions of dates). During the Holocene sealevel maximum, Tongatapu possessed a large open bay with some islets in its entrance. With a drop in relative sealevel these islets merged and formed the present Nuku'alofa peninsula, effectively cutting off the western part of the bay from the sea and creating the present inner lagoon. Based on the evidence of the coral dates it can be shown that this closure occurred at 7000 cal BP at the low-tide level, and, based on the evidence of the shell dates, that the former bay was cut off at the high-tide level by about 2500 cal BP.
While sealevel had been rising rapidly until 6600 BP due to eustatic change, the isostatic rebound over the past 6000 years seems to have been gradual. Detailed investigations of the size and composition of shells within and below several archaeological shell middens show that while the overall trend was linear, sealevel adjustment apparently happened in an oscillating manner, causing fluctuating flushing conditions within the bay.
Some evidence for a sealevel highstand during the Holocene and a subsequent negative adjustment can be noted on other islands of the Tongan chain, which show different tectonic histories during the Quaternary. In conjunction with the lack of any conclusive evidence for coseismic emergence on Tongatapu, it seems that the Holocene sealevel change on Tongatapu is due to isostatic rebound.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Distribution of rat species on the atolls of the Marshall Islands: Past and present dispersal. Atoll Research Bulletin 445, 1-8.

The paper reviews the evidence for past and present dispersal of rats (Rattus exulans, R. rattus and R. norvegicus) in the Marshall Islands. The introduction of R. rattus to various atolls can be traced to the military developments of World War II, mainly the construction of jetties.
  

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) On the origin of drift materials in the Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 444, 1-8.

The oceanic dispersal of plants and animals has been the focus of some studies ever since organised natural history started in the Pacific, and the dispersal by sea rafting has been given due consideration. The finding of drift materials such as glass floats, tree trunks and seeds, is a common occurrence on the shores of Pacific Islands, but in most cases the origin of that material is unknown or at least equivocal. Thus while the principle of sea rafted dispersal is known and reported at length, there is a need to document those occasions where positive proof of origin can be furnished.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Geomorphological survey of Taroa Island, Maloelap Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. in: Adams, William, H., Ross, Richard, E., Krause, Elisabeth, L. and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (eds), Micronesian Resources Study, Marshall Islands Archaeology. The Japanese Airbase on Taroa Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1937-1945: an evaluation of World War II Remains., San Francisco, Calif. : Micronesian Endowment for Historic Preservation, US National Park Service. Pp. 107-127.

As part of the Micronesian Cultural Resources study a brief geomorphological survey was carried out on Taroa Island, Maloelap Atoll, to assess the rate of shoreline modification and the implications on the management of cultural heritage sites. Drawing on data derived from physical survey work in 1989 and historic data provided by the bomb target maps and aerial photographs taken by US forces during World War II it was found that substantial shoreline change had occurred at the lagoonal side of Taroa and the ocean side of Eoon-epje, and islet south of Taroa, now joined by a causeway. The construction of the causeway as part of the Japanese base development was seen as causal to the erosion because the curtrent patterns had changed with the closure of the former reef channel between Taroa and Eoon-epje.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (1997) Investigation into vertebrate vectors dispersing olives (Olea europaea). Frugivory Updates Vol. 8.
Allen, L.Richard & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Woodland birds - woodland weed vectors? in: Birds Australia 1997 Congress ' Birds and woodlands' Charles Sturt University Albury NSW 4 & 5 October 1997.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Unsustainable harvesting of Pacific seabird populations at the turn of the 20th century in: Conference Abstracts, ESA 97 1997 Conference, 1-3 October, 1997. Charles Sturt University, Albury,. Pp. 87.

At present much discussion occurs on the reduction of sea bird populations caused by the destruction of breeding habitats due to resource exploitation and development. On the small islands of the Central Pacific sea bird habitats are threatened by climate-change induced variations of cyclone patterns and sea-levels. At the turn of the century the single most serious threat to the survival of these birds occurred in the form of plumage hunters who stripped several islands bare of their bird populations, killing millions of sea birds in the spate of less than a decade. Some of these populations recovered, while others succumbed to continued pressure due to (military) development.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Proactive Cultural Heritage Management: "Advertising" options for Pacific Island Countries Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 81.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Meyenn, Robert J. (1997) Cultural Heritage management and Curriculum Development: Some issues facing Melanesian Nations. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report 98, 1-16. ISBN: 1 875758 63 1

The report looks at the relationship between traditional education as practiced under the rules of 'kastom' for thousands of years and the formal school education system imposed by the colonial powers. This tension has significant implications for a nation's cultural identity as well as the management of the cultural heritage which are inextricably intertwined with the way we approach the education of children.
It argues for a multi-tiered curriculum which allows for the localisation of content and thus the fostering of culture and traditions while at the same time ensuring that the national curriculum aims are being met.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Montfort, Lesley & Fry, Grey (1997) Library use as a generic skill Wagga Wagga: Charles Sturt University, Open Learning Institute. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 22, 35-39. URL: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/OLI/pubs/occpap/no22/papers22.pdf (Adobe Acrobat file)

The School of Environmental and Information Sciences has identified a series of generic skills graduates should possess upon entering the workplace. These skills are not taught separately, but embedded into different subjects. We will review the effectiveness of such skill transfer based on experiences gained in Spring 1996 from the perspective of lecturers and library staff

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Montfort, Lesley & Fry, Grey (1997) Library use as a generic skill in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, 26.
Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience in: Michael Wyatt (ed.), Information on-line and on disk '97. Proceedings of the 8th Australasian Information Online and on Disc Conference, Sydney: Information Science Section, Australian Library and Information Association. Pp. 213-230.

The paper discusses the developments of on-line teaching at Charles Sturt University and raises som conceptual parameters that need to be addressed if the system shall be successful

Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Why are the Pacific Islands connecting to the Internet? [Abstract] in: Tony Bennett (ed.), Cultural Cross Roads. Ownership, Access, Identity. Abstracts for the Conference 24-26 November 1997., Brisbane: Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy, Griffith University. Pp. 94.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do techno-sceptics use on-campus e-mail?. Campus-Wide Information Systems 14(2), 46-53.

Electronic mail has become all pervasive at CSU. Most of our inter-office communication is conducted via this medium or via WWW announcements. But do students see it the same way? Response times to messages sent to all students enrolled in a subject were measured, which show that some students took more than 80 days to read their mail. The total number of students reading their mail dropped near the end of term, at a time when much use was made of the medium. Little correlation was observed between the frequency of e-mail reading and the final student grade

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) How often do students actually read their e-mail?. American Association for Higher Education AAHESGIT LISTSERV Vol. 17.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW: Open Learning Institute,Charles Sturt University. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, 29-40. URL: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/OLI/pubs/occpap/no21/spenner/index.htm
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do students read their e-mail? in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, 23.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Can tutorials modify perceptions? in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, 23. in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, 23.

To provide students with the skills and knowledge to understand concepts in cultural resource management and to be able to respond critically to current topics, tutorials were run with two students presenting and arguing diametrically opposed points of view. The attitude of the student population (n=150) to the discussion topics, polled at the beginning of the term, was polled at intervals during the term (one week after the relevant tutorial, after return from mid-session break, end of term). Major shifts in opinion could be observed after the tutorials with small readjustments as time progressed. Most significantly the numbers of 'don't know' answers dropped showing that the tutorial format facilitated idea formation and opinion building. Differences between personalised and anonymous questionnaires could be observed.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Back-up habits of students in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching.
 

1996
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) The presence of Varanus indicus on the atolls of the Marshall Islands. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. WWW document URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/RMI/Varanus_indicus.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Head, M. John (1996) Reservoir modification of radiocarbon signatures in coastal and near-shore waters of Eastern Australia: the state of play. Quarternary Australasia 14(1), 32-39.

Oceanic processes (incl. chemical, physical and biological) The radiocarbon (14C) activity of an ocean water sample varies at any given point in time and space depending on the concentration of surface air (CO2) absorbed into the seawater in relation to 14C -depleted deep ocean waters brought to the surface by currents and upwelling. The carbon precipitated by marine organisms (corals/shell) reflects this 14C activity, and returns an apparent older age. Local inshore effects, such as terrestrial run off or input of 14C-depleted ground water, as well as offshore influences such as localised currents, have been shown to influence the determinations. Unless sub-regional correction factors are developed as based on a series of systematic studies, the present practice of age determinations maybe result in misleading interpretation of data

Look, David W. & Dirk H.R.Spennemann (1996) In a tropical marine climate: Conservation Management of Historic Metals. APT Bulletin 27(1-2), 60.

A severe tropical climate and a lack of maintenance have resulted in huge inventory of World War II (WWII) sites and objects in the Pacific Area (in both US territories and in the new republics of Freely Associated States of Micronesia) in an advanced, accelerated state of deterioration. How can we assist the Micronesians in preserving a brief moment in time when two foreign nations fought a war on their homeland? The commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the WWII has come and gone. Although the war has not been forgotten, the current hard economic situation in the US, Micronesia, and elsewhere has not been the ideal time to secure the preservation of these vulnerable resources. Since we do not have adequate funds to preserve these irreplaceable cultural resources, what can we do to slow the rate of deterioration.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Adaptive re-use of B-24 parts in the Marshall Islands Briefing-The Journal of the Intenational Liberator Club 59, p. 3.

The abundance of military sites and materiel of the Pacific War meant that many places and objects found secondary uses during and especially after the war. The paper reviews the secondary use of parts of B-24 'Liberator' bomber aircraft. Prime items were aluminium oxygen cylinders which served as cooking pots, but aluminium struts, and even entire propeller blades also found their use.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) B-24 Liberators on virtual display on the Internet. Briefing-The Journal of the Intenational Liberator Club 56, 22

The abundance of military sites and materiel of the Pacific War meant that many places and objects found secondary uses during and especially after the war. The paper reviews the secondary use of parts of B-24 'Liberator' bomber aircraft. Prime items were aluminium oxygen cylinders which served as cooking pots, but aluminium struts, and even entire propeller baldes also found their use.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Harris, Kellie (1996) Cultural heritage of Culcairn Shire: some considerations for strategic planning. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 71. Charles Sturt University, The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage: Albury, NSW
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Meyenn, Robert J. (1996) Melanesian Cultural Heritage Management Identification Study. Strategic Issues Document. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 61. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University: Albury, NSW.
  
Spennemann, D.H.R. (1996) "Hundertwasser Wohnen in den Wiesen". Art, Architecture and Heritage in Bad Soden, Germany. A hypermedia resource. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW, Australia.
URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Varia/Hundertwasser/100W_Start.html [Developed as a case study for a student assignment]
Spennemann, D.H.R. (1996) The three lives of St. Matthew's Anglican Church, Kiewa Street, Albury. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW, Australia.
URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Varia/St.Matthews/SM_Start.html [Developed as a case study for a student assignment]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Gifts from the waves. A case of marine transport of obsidian to Nadikdik Atoll and the occurrence of other drift material in the Marshall Islands. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 23. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University: Albury, NSW
  
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Ein javanisches Zeremonialbeil (candrasa) mit Fundortangabe Waldalgesheim, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland: ein Beitrag zur Typologie und Chronologie. TRIBUS 45, 95-118.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Local rebound in the face of a global economy? The increasing need to reaffirm traditional skills in: Gaynor Macdonald and Allyson Luders (eds), Australian Anthropological Conference 1996 Annual Conference. Abstracts., School of Arts and Cultural Heritage, Charles Sturt University: Albury, NSW. Pp. 62.

Cultural heritage management the world over has become fixated on the management of sites and places, on the management of tangible resources, while the traditional immersion of these sites into the cultural expressions as whole has been severed. Only too often cultural policy addresses sites as entities separate from the rest of cultural manifestations. While eco-tourism and cultural tourism allow the transformation of cultural places as income generators, many government agencies see heritage management as a millstone around the neck of economic development. The second prong of cultural policy severs traditional skills from modern society. They are recorded by arts institutes, cultural centres and museums and seen as quite separate from the modern economic structures. Resource-rich countries can economically afford, for the time being at least, the import of almost all foodstuffs and goods. Resource-poor nations cannot. This paper will review the potential relevance of traditional skills as import substitutes in the atoll nation of the Marshall Islands and show that there is very much a role to be played by traditional skills and crafts in contemporary society, and they, in fact, have a competitive advantage.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) A web of holes or a new fishing net for the Pacific? The WWW in Oceania in: Gaynor Macdonald and Allyson Luders (eds), Australian Anthropological Conference 1996 Annual Conference. Abstracts. , School of Arts and Cultural Heritage, Charles Sturt University: Albury, NSW. Pp. 63.
>Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) The role of universities in urban disaster reduction: From discordant soloists to a symphonic orchestra in: UN-IDNDR and QUIPUNET Internet Conference "Solutions for Cities at Risk" 26 August 1996 - 25 October 1996.

The paper review several educational issues on disaster management and concludes that international coopertaion and a sharing of disaster management courses is not only desireable but also invetable in the age of the information superhighway

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & David W. Look (1996) The impact of the disaster impact managers-from conflict to dialogue. Australian Journal of Disaster Management 11(1), 6-8.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Effects of earthquakes on Wagga Wagga: the 1871 and 1872 events Bulletin of the Wagga Wagga Historical Society 300, 3-6. blockquote>Soon it will be 125 years since the European residents of Wagga Wagga felt their first serious earthquake. The published local histories do not mention earthquakes, which attests both to the scarcity of such events, and to the low importance afforded these phenomena by historians unless major damage and loss of life occurred. This brief article reminds readers of these events by reviewing the information available on the 1871 and 1872 earthquakes and placing it into context
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) 8 June 1871-The first documented earthquake felt in Albury Albury and District Historical Society Bulletin 345, 3-4.

Soon it will be 125 years since the European residents of Albury felt their first earthquake. The local histories, with the exception of Andrews do not mention earthquakes, which attests to the scarcity of such events, and to the low importance afforded these phenomena by the writers. This brief article reminds readers of these events by reviewing the information available on the 1871 and 1872 earthquakes and placing it into context

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Dreading the next wave: non-traditional settlement patterns and typhoon threats on contemporary Majuro, Marshall Islands. Environmental Management 20(3), 337-348.

Low-lying islands and atolls are particularly prone to storm surges created by tropical depressions and typhoons. This paper presents a case study of traditional and contemporary settlement patterns of Majuro, the capital of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and discusses its vulnerability to such storm surges. The paper shows that the application of traditional knowledge extends to the realm of urban planning and that, in fact, ignoring this traditional knowledge as expressed in pre-World War II settlement patterns, exposes urban development to increased flood hazards, a risk which may exact a price too high in life and property

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) General Knowledge in Heritage and History. Internal Student population 1996 School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report Vol. 6. School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University: Albury, NSW.
URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Publications/Attitudes96/GeneralKnowledge.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Students' commitments to attend residential schools: who bears the burden? Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 19, 15-24.

The participants of the 1995 residential school for subject PKM 266 were asked to furnish information on the costs incurred in attending the residential school. The key findings are that the costs of the residential school, travel and accommodation, are borne by the student. While employers pay for travel in a minority of cases, they tend to support the student by providing them with special leave

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Atkinson, John S. (1996) Electronic ephemera. A threat to structured on-line education. in: Roger Debreceny and Allan Ellis (eds), AusWeb96 Landscaping the Web, Southern Cross University: Lismore. Pp. 525-528.

The World Wide Web (WWW) has created a low-cost publishing medium which permits to project a virtual presence well beyond the geographic location of the publisher. Because of the anarchic nature of the WWW and because literally everybody with access to a modem and an internet account can publish there is level of unruliness about network publishing. While laudable as an example of freedom of expression, it poses problems for those, who wish to refer to these publications as examples and readings as part of electronic distance education packages. The ephemeral nature of many documents published on the WWW is diametrically opposed to the very nature of scholarship and academic education. The issue of permanency of documents needs to be addressed if the full potential of the WWW as a publish tool shall be realised

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Current Attitudes of Parks Management and Ecotourism Students I: Gender Issues School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report Vol. 5. School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University: Albury, NSW.
URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Publications/Attitudes96/Attitudes96_1_Gender.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Gender imbalances in computer access among environmental science students. Journal of Instructional Science and Technology Vol. 1(2).
URL: http://www.usq.edu.au/electpub/e-jist/spenne.htm

A survey of environmental science students at Charles Sturt University studying both in internal and external mode, has shown that the low socio-economic standing of women is carried through to the ownership and access to computers. The observed differences are very severe, clearly setting the women students at a disadvantage. These data seem to confirm the fear that the current economic imbalances between the genders will translate into imbalances in information access and information manipulation, thus resulting in ongoing, or even exacerbated inequity

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Atkinson, John S. (1996) Electronic ephemera. A threat to structured on-line education. in: Roger Debreceny and Allan Ellis (eds), AusWeb96 Landscaping the Web, Southern Cross University: Lismore. Pp. 525-528.

The World Wide Web (WWW) has created a low-cost publishing medium which permits to project a virtual presence well beyond the geographic location of the publisher. Because of the anarchic nature of the WWW and because literally everybody with access to a modem and an internet account can publish there is level of unruliness about network publishing. While laudable as an example of freedom of expression, it poses problems for those, who wish to refer to these publications as examples and readings as part of electronic distance education packages. The ephemeral nature of many documents published on the WWW is diametrically opposed to the very nature of scholarship and academic education. The issue of permanency of documents needs to be addressed if the full potential of the WWW as a publish tool shall be realised.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Birckhead, Jim, Green, David G. & Atkinson, John S. (1996) "The electronic colonisation of the Pacific'. Computer Mediated Communications Magazine Vol. 3(2).
http://www.december.com/cmc/mag/1996/feb/spen.html

The recent developments of server-based technology have seen the Internet become more and more pervasive. The "information superhighway" or "infobahn" has been touted far and wide as heralding a new age. Certainly the World Wide Web offers a wide range of options for communication and for the exchange of information. But what does this mean for the indigenous cultures in the microstates of the Pacific? There is a need to consider the sorts of impact the technological developments may have in order to sensitize the users and developers of the Web to these issues and to explore avenues to mitigate negative impacts.
     Traditional views of communication might take a value-neutral stance to technology. However, while modern technologies empower, economic inequalities restrict access. Moreever, the nature of web communication isn't all that egalitarian, which raises the question of whether the Web brings enablement or exploitation, with the Webmasters as sorcerer's apprentices.
     In the end, we raise questions of where we may go from here--the current Web is set to divorce the indigenous cultures from control of their own cultural material.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) The Information superhighway in the Pacific. Pacific Servers in April 1996. URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Pacific/PacHwy0496.html

This paper reviews the state of WWW servers in the Pacific Islands countries at the beginning of April 1996. While the number of servers has increased, the full potential or publishing has not yet been realised.In addition, a number new commercial sites have opened in the USA, which set new standards for presentation, but exhibit selective and slanted information. The predicted gap between the Pacific Islands and the overseas servers and the information published therein will continue to widen unless concerted action is taken by the Pacific Island countries

 

1995
Franke, Bernd, R.Schupfner, H.Schüttelkopf and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands. In: 'Plutonium in the Environment' Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes 46 (11), 1253-1258.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & M. John Head (1995) Diachronic changes in the water budget of Fanga Uta Lagoon, Tongatapu, Tonga (South Pacific): evidence of d13C values in marine shells Paper presented at the 2nd ANZ Meeting on Quarternary Dating, 1-3 February 1995, Australian National University, Canberra.

Stable carbon isotope ratios in marine shells depend on the amount of non-marine carbon precipitated by the shells. Shells from Tongatapu were found to fluctuate in the delat-13C values. The data are shown to be useful tools to assess the water budget of Fanga 'Uta Lagoon

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Memories, Memorabilia and Monuments: private, territorial and federal interpretations of the Pacific War in Guam. In: E.Beckmann and Stephen Hull (eds)Interpretation: attached to heritage', Papers presented at the Third Annual Conference of Interpretation Australia Association 5-7 December 1994. Collingwood, Vic : Interpretation Australia . Pp. 195-205 . Pp. 195-205
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Population control measures in traditional Marshallese Culture and their implications for today. Asian Culture (Asian-Pacific Culture) Quarterly 23 (1), 19-30.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Vusoniwailala, Kate (1995) Melanesian Cultural Cultural Heritage Management Identification Study. Trip Report Nº 1. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 48. Charles Sturt University, Johnstone Centre of Parks, Receation and Heritage: Albury, NSW
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Review of Matthew Spriggs (ed.), Lapita Design, Form and Composition. Proceedings of the Lapita Design Workshop, Canberra, Australia-December 1988. (Occasional Papers in Prehistory Nº 19). Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra. 1990. In: Canberra Anthropology
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Bernd Franke (1995) Decomposition of human bodies and the interpretation of burials in the tropical Pacific. Archaeology in Oceania 30, 66-73
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Bernd Franke (1995) Archaeological techniques for exhumations: a unique data source for crime scene investigations. Forensic Science International 74(1), 5-15.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Bernd Franke (1995) Decomposition of buried human bodies and associated death scene materials on coral atolls in the tropical Pacific. Journal of Forensic Sciences 40 (3) 356-367.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Physical reminders of the British-Japanese Armament Trade in Micronesia. Journal of the Pacific Society (Tokyo) 18(3), 1-15.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) British Naval Guns in Micronesia. Mariners Mirror 81(3), 343-347.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) The site visibility and site survey bias in cultural resource management. A Preliminary analysis of the 1993 survey reports held by Aboriginal Affairs Victoria. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report 19 Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University

All consultancy reports submitted in 1993 to the Heritage Division of Aboriginal Affairs Victoria were reviewed to assess how the consultants dealt with issues of site visibilty and bias. The results showed that in their present form many of the reports

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1995) Impact of tropical vegetation on historical cultural resources. A photographic case study from the Marshall Islands. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report 18. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Natural Disaster Mitigation and Cultural Heritage: a course proposal. In: Dirk H.R. Spennemann, David W.Look and Glenn D.Matthews (eds.): Proceedings of the symposium "Management of disaster mitigation and response programs for historic sites: a dialogue. San Francisco, CA. June 27-29, 1995. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia. [URL href="http://life.csu.edu.au/ ~dspennem/ Disaster_SFO/ SFO_Course.html]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and David G. Green (in press) A special interest network for natural hazard mitigation for cultural heritage sites. In: Dirk H.R. Spennemann, David W.Look and Glenn D.Matthews (eds.): Proceedings of the symposium "Management of disaster mitigation and response programs for historic sites: a dialogue. San Francisco, CA. June 27-29, 1995. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia. [URL http://life.csu.edu.au/ ~dspennem/ Disaster_SFO/ SFO_SIN_Proposal.html]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) A view from the rim: a summation paper. In: Dirk H.R. Spennemann, David W.Look and Glenn D.Matthews (eds.) : Proceedings of the symposium "Management of disaster mitigation and response programs for historic sites: a dialogue. San Francisco, CA. June 27-29, 1995. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia. [URL http://life.csu.edu.au/ ~dspennem/ Disaster_SFO/ SFO_Summary_Paper.html]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Conservation management and mitigation of the Impact of tropical cyclones on archaeological sites: examples from Tonga, the Marshall Islands and Australia. Paper read at: Management of disaster mitigation and response programs for historic sites: a dialogue. San Francisco, CA. June 27-29, 1995. San Francisco, CA: U.S. National Park Service, Western Regional Office
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Dreading the next wave: non-traditional settlement patterns and typhoon threats on contemporary Majuro, Marshall Islands. Natural Hazards Research Center Working Papers, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, Co
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Lesley Montfort (1995) Graduate Diploma's and Coursework Masters offered by Australian Universities in Distance Education mode A descriptive analysis of various parameters. School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report No 1. Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1995.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) In the heat of the moments: effects of fire shells. In Dirk H.R. Spennemann (compiler) Physical Conservation Methods. Readings. External Study Package PKM 368. Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga.
Spennemann,Dirk H.R. (1995) Skimming the bright surface, or sounding the murky depths? Teaching to learn and learning to teach Cultural Resource Management face-to-face and at a distance. In:Robert J.Meyenn, Juith Parker & Bruce Pennay(eds.) Charles Sturt University Tertiary Teaching Colloquium Papers 1994. Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW. PP. 44-59
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) On-line study packages for distance education. Some considerations of conceptual parameters. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Education, Open Learning Institute, Charles Sturt University 18, 1-18.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Lesley Montfort (1995) Study duration of post-graduate distance education degrees offered by Australian Universities. Occasional Papers in Distance Education, Open Learning Institute, Charles Sturt University 18, 27-32.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Students' commitments to attend residential schools: who bears the burden? School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report nª 2, School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW. URL: http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/TEACHING/ResSch95/ResSch95_1.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Students' commitments to attend residential schools: the desireability of residential schools. School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report nª 3, School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW. URL: http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/TEACHING/ResSch95/ResSch95_2.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Gender imbalances in computer access among environmental science students School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW. URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Publications/Gender_SEIS_95/Gender_SEIS_95.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Anthony P. Steinke (1995) Computerised Interactive Cultural Resources Inventory Training. A computer program for survey training at Charles Sturt University. Paper read at the AUUG'95 & Asia-Pacific World-Wide Web'95 Conference & Exhibition. Darling Harbour 19-22 September 1995. [URL http://life.csu.edu.au/ ~dspennem/ Publications/WWW_CONF/CICRIT.html]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Anthony P.Steinke (1995) Computerised Interactive Cultural Resources Inventory Training. A computer program for survey training at Charles Sturt University. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report nª 32. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Lesley Montfort (1995) Graduate Diploma's and Coursework Masters offered by Australian Universities in Distance Education mode. A descriptive analysis of various parameters. School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report No 1. Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1995.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995)Guide to referencing on-line material. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia. Document URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Publications/WWW_Publishing/Referencing.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Standardised navigation buttons: structuring the chaos in on-line delivered subjects. Paper presented at: "Designing on-line delivered subjects at Charles Sturt University. Workshop 1: Defining minimum design standards". 11 September 1995 . Charles Sturt University, Albury. Document URL: http://life.csu.edu.au//standards/Button_Paper/ DHRS_Button_Paper.html
 

1994
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Ian Marschner (1994) Stormy Years. On the association between the El Niño/Southern oscillation phenomenon and the ocurence of typhoons in the Marshall Islands. Report to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Region IX, San Francisco. Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report No 9. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1994.br>       
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & David W. Look (1994) Impact of tropical vegetation on historical cultural resources. A photographic case study from the Marshall Islands. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report No 18. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1994.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) Traditional arrowroot production and utilisation in the Marshall Islands. Journal of Ethnobiology 14(2),
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) On the diet of pigs foraging on mudflats on Tongatapu: an investigation in taphonomy. Archaeology in New Zealand 37(2), 104-110.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) Excavations of a prehistoric cemetery on Majuro Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report No 13- The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1994.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Bernd Franke (1994) On the dark stains observed in some Tongan burials. Archaeology in New Zealand. 37 (1), 35-43.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) Review of: G.F.Ijzereef, Bronze Age Animal Bones from Bovenkarspel. The Excavation at het Valkje. Project Noord-Holland 1. Nederlandse Oudheden 10. Rijksdienst vor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderz^k, Amersfoort 1981. In: Fundberichte aus Hessen 27/28, 1987/88 (1994), 179-181.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) 'Draft Proposals for a Heritage Act (Victoria)'. A submission of formal comment. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. P.O. Box 789, Albury NSW 2640.
Dirk H.R. Spennemann & David W. Look (1994) Writing Conservation Management Plans. Concepts and Considerations for Conservation Management Plans. In David Look and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (compilers) Conservation Man-agement of Historic Metal in Tropical Environments. Background Notes No 11. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia. and U.S. Depart-ment of the Interior, National Park Service, West-ern Regional Office, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A. [Typeset in pdf form 2004].

Look, David W. & Dirk H.R.Spennemann (1994) Preparing for the 50th anniversary of Guam Liberation. Metals Conservation Course and Demonstration Project. CRM Bulletin 17(8): 35-36.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) An archaeological survey of the proposed Corowa sewerage augmentation scheme carried out at Corowa, NSW, on behalf of NSW Public Works. Johnstone Centre for Parks Recreation and Heritage Report nª 8. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) The last flight of the 'St. Quentin Quail'. Investigations of the wreckage and history of Consolidated B-24 'Liberator' aircraft #42-41205 off Jab'u Island, Arno Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report No 17- The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1994.
Curtis, Allan L., Stephen J. Hull & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1994) Eco-tourism the pitfalls. In K.Markwell & Sue Muloin (eds), Open to Interpretation 1993. Conference papers of the Annual Conference of the Interpretation Australia Association . University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW. Pp. 82-86.
Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1994) Physical Conservation Techniques. Modular external study package for undergraduate course PKM 368. Open Learning Institute, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga.
Look, David W. & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1994) The preservation of stationary metal objects in a tropical marine climate. In Dirk H.R. Spennemann (ed.) Cultural Heritage Management. External Study Package PKM 402 for the Masters of Applied Science (Parks, Recreation and Heritage). Autumn 1994. Open Learning Institute, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) Identifying historic brickwork-techniques, styles and conservation problems. School of Environmental and Information Science, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW. 19 pp.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) The Willandra Lakes Conundrum World Heritage in Policy Conflict Workbook & Readings. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW. 2 vols. 159 & 104 pp.
Look, David W. & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1994) Workshop 'Conservation Management of Historic Metals in Tropical Environments.' War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam June 27-July 1, 1994. Workbook compiled by David W. Look and Dirk H.R. Spennemann. War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, U.S.A.
The volume contains the following background notes which in fact constitute separate publications:
  • Japanese Coastal Defense Strategy in Micronesia.
  • The British Armament Trade with Japan. Examining the origin of Coastal Defence Guns in Micronesia.
  • 200mm (8-inch) Coastal Defense Guns. British, Italian and Japanese Naval Guns and their Emplacements in Micronesia.
  • Japanese 127mm Dual Purpose Guns and their Emplacements in Micronesia
  • 4.7-inch (120mm) Naval Guns. British and Japanese Coastal Defence and Dual Purpose Guns and their Emplacements in Micronesia.
  • 6-inch (150mm) Coastal Defense Guns. British, Italian and Japanese Naval Guns and their Emplacements in Micronesia.
  • Recording Coastal Defense Guns and Emplacements in Micronesia. Guidelines [Spennemann, D.H.R., D.W. Look & J. Bayliss]
  • An Illustrated Glossary of Japanese Coastal Defence. Ordnance, Ammunition and its Manufacturers.
  • The Pacific War in Micronesia. A Bibliography of Publications on Japanese Bases and their Equipment
  • Writing Conservation Management Plans. Concepts & Considerations for Conservation Management Plans [Spennemann, D.H.R. & D.W. Look] URL:http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennemann/Publications/Guam/G11-CMP.html
  • Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) A fallen Liberator: the history of a Consolidated B-24 'Liberator' aircraft wreck in Majuro Lagoon, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association of Australia Magazine 47 (3), 57-63.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) Historic Preservation in the Marshall Islands. After the Battle 84, 44-46.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) Assessing fallen Liberators in the Marshall Islands. Briefing -The Journal of the International B-24 Liberator Club. 51, 7-13.
    Franke, Bernd, R.Schupfner, H.Schuettelkopf and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1994) Transuranics in bone of deceased former residents of Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands. Paper read at International Symposium on Plutonium in the Environment, Ottawa July 6-8, 1994. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) Memories, Memorabilia and Monuments: private, territorial and federal interpretations of the Pacific War in Guam. Paper read at "Interpretation: attached to heritage", the 1994 Interpretation Australia Conference. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation & Heritage, Charles Sturt University
    Look, David & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1994) Conservation of World War II Sites in a tropical Marine climate. Paper read at Annual Conference of the American Society for Preservation Technology, Seattle, September 1994.
     

    1993
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Toorlok Bok-Predictions of environmental, economical, social and cultural impacts of a potential rise in relative sea-level on the atolls of the Marshall Islands, Micronesia. In S.Burgin (es.), Climate Change: Implications for Natural Resource Conservation. University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury Occasional Papers in Biological Sciences 1. Richmond, NSW: University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury. Pp.185-251.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) On the 239/240Pu and 242Pu content of the Majuro Control Sample. The origin of the control sample used in the determination of transuranic elements in exhumed bones from deceased residents of Rongelap Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Johnstone Centre for Parks Recreation and Heritage Report nª 2. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Cowrie shell tools: fact or fiction? Archaeology in Oceania 28(1), 40-49.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Ark shell netsinkers: fact or fiction? Archaeology in New Zealand 36(2), 75-83.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) The Exhumation of Human Bodies on Mejatto Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands Narrative and Documentation. Case report prepared for the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Washington/USA & Heidelberg/Germany as part of the Plutonium in Bone Study, Rongelap Resettlement Project. Pacific Cultural Resources Management Case Reports. Albury, NSW, Australia: Pacific Cultural Resources Management.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) A dictionary of common terms used in the preparation of cultural resource assessments - Preliminary ed. - Albury, NSW.: Charles Sturt University, The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, 1993. 32pp.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Cultural Resources on Mejatto Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Observations during a series of exhumations in January 1993. Case report prepared for the Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office . Pacific Cultural Resources Management Case Reports. Albury, NSW, Australia: Pacific Cultural Resources Management.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) The archaeological manifestation of contemporary Marshallese burial practices. Observations made during a series of exhumations on Mejatto Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Pacific Cultural Resources Management Case Reports. Albury, NSW, Australia: Pacific Cultural Resources Management.
    Look, David W. and Dirk H.R. Spennemann, (1993) For Future Use: A Management Conservation Plan for the World War II sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands., Albury, NSW, Australia, and San Francisco, U.S.A.: The Johnstone Centre of Park, Recreation and Heritage and the U.S. National Park Service Western Regional Office.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Marshall Islands approves comprehensive preservation legislation. Journal of Field Archaeology 20(4), 504-505
    Look, David W. & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1993) Saving WWII Historic Sites. Metals Conservation Course in the Marshall Islands. Cultural Resource Management Bulletin [U.S. National Park Service] 16 (5), 22-24.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Multicultural Resources Management-a Pacific Perspective. Historic Preservation Forum 7(1), 20-26.
    Curtis, Allan L., Stephen J. Hull & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1993) Willyama Arid Zone Reserve. Eco-tourism and educational tourism themes for the Broken Hill Common. Johnstone Centre for Parks Recreation and Heritage Report nª 3. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Aviation Archaeology. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 3(1), 1993, 1; 4-11.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Editorial. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 3(1), 1993, 2.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Know Your Past 8: History: Japanese Sea Plane and Flying Boat operations in the Marshall Islands. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 3(1), 1993, 12-16.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Know Your Past 9: History: History and Archaeology of a B-24 bomber off Ajola I., Majuro Atoll. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 3(1), 1993, 17-20.
    Ennaanin Etto-Essays on the Marshallese Past. Marshall Islands Culture And History. Series F: Technical Studies and Miscellaneous. Volume No 1. Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office. 312pp.
        Electronic version at http://life.csu.edu.au/marshall/essays/essays.html
    Curtis, A., Stephen Hull & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1993) Eco-tourism: the pitfalls. 1993 Open to Interpretation Conference Abstracts. 1993 Open to Interpretation Conference November 29 to December 1, 1993, University of Newcastle, NSW.
     

    1992
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992)Wotje Atoll. Its geography, natural and cultural history . Independent Nationwide Radiological Survey Background Study Nº 34. Majuro: Historic Preservation Office.
    Downing, Jane , Dirk H.R.Spennemann & Margaret Bennett (eds.) (1992) Bwebwenatoon Etto. A collection of Marshallese Legends and Traditions. With illustrations by Amram Enos and Paul Kingsbury. Marshall Islands Culture And History. Series E: Legends, Chants and Proverbs. Vol No 1. Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office.
        Electronic version at http://life.csu.edu.au/marshall/legends/legends.html
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Makmõk. Notes on the occurrence, utilisation, and importance of Polynesian Arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides ) in the Marshall Islands. Republic of the Marshall Islands Ministry of Internal Affairs / Ministry of Social Services Occasional Paper Nº 1. Majuro, Marshall Islands: Ministries of Internal Affairs and Social Services.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Marshallese Tattoos . Marshall Islands Culture And History. Series C: Traditional Skills and Practices. Volume No 1. Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office. 233pp.
        Electronic version at http://life.csu.edu.au/marshall/tattoo/tattoo.html
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Arrowroot production in the Marshall Islands: past, present and future. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 20(2), 1992, 97.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Historic Demography of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Journal of the Pacific Society (Tokyo) 15(1), 1992, (1)-152)-(21)-132
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Copra Revenues as a parameter of Male Income in the Outer Islands of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Journal of the Pacific Society (Tokyo) 15(2-3), 1992, 43-54.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) 'Ata 'a Tonga mo 'ata 'o Tonga: Early and Later Prehistory of the Tongan Islands . 4 Vols. UMI 92-13735. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Differential representation of human skeletal remains in eroded and redeposited coastal deposits: A case study from the Marshall Islands. International Journal of Anthropology 7 (1), 1-8.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) World War II Sites on Wotje Island. In: David W. Look and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (compilers), 'Conservation of Iron Artefacts in a Tropical Marine Climate .' Workbook for a workshop held at Majuro and Wotje Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands, December 3rd to 10th, 1992. Majuro Atoll: Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office and U.S. National Park Service, Western Regional Office
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) The Cultural Resources of Wotje Atoll. In: David W. Look and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (compilers), 'Conservation of Iron Artefacts in a Tropical Marine Climate .' Workbook for a workshop held at Majuro and Wotje Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands, December 3rd to 10th, 1992. Majuro Atoll: Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office and U.S. National Park Service, Western Regional Office
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Target '96: Using the Past to Navigate the Future. An Assessment of Historic Preservation Needs in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and a Comprehensive Plan of Action for FY 1992/93 to 1996/97. Majuro, Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Cultural Resource Management Plan for Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. 2 Vols. Washington: U.S.Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs. Part I: Managment Plan 543 pp. Part II: Appendices 352 pp.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Predictive Modelling of Settlement Expansion and its implications for Historic Preservation Efforts on Coral Atolls: A case study from Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Paper distributd at : National Park Service Cultural Resources Training Places of Value in the Midst of Change: Evaluation, Treatment and Negotiation in Cultural Resources Management. Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, May 18-22, 1992. Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (comp.) (1992) Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Legislation. A compilation of all applicable laws and regulations. Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Carmen Bigler and Abacca Anjain (1992) Cultural Resource Management in the Republic of the Marshall Islands 90/91. ISLA - Journal of Micronesian Studies 1(2), 437-444.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Apocalypse now?-the fate of World War II sites on the Central Pacific Islands. Cultural Resources Management [U.S.National Park Service, Washington] 15(2), 1992, 15-16, 22.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Archaeological Site Location Using a Global Positioning System. Journal of Field Archaeology 19(2), 1992, 271-274.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) World War II Remains on Central Pacific Islands: Perceptions of Heritage versus Priorities of Preservation. The Pacific Review 5 (3), 1992, 278-290.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992)Republic of the Marshall Islands World War II Historic Sites Recording Programme . National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers Resource Fair 1992. Washington D.C. 8 pp.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992)Republic of the Marshall Islands Library and and Literacy Week 1992. Oral Traditions and Oral history.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Wotje, Wotje Atoll. Air Marshall Islands Sunday Escape . Folded tour brochure. Majuro: AIRMarshall Islands.
    Look, David W. & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1992) Workshop 'Conservation of Iron Artefacts in a Tropical Marine Climate. ' Majuro and Wotje Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands, December 3rd to 10th, 1992. Workbook. Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands and U.S. National Park Service, San Francisco, U.S.A.
    Curtis, Carol and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1992) Know Your Past 7: Traditional Culture: Marshallese stickchart navigation. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 2(4), 1992, 58-60; 62
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Arrowroot production in the Marshall Islands: past, present and future. IRETA South Pacific Agriculture News 9(5), 1991 (1992), 2.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Arrowroot production in the Marshall Islands: past, present and future. Palawija (Newsletter of the Institute for Coarse Grains, Pulses, Roots and Tuber Crops in the Humid Tropics of Asia and the Pacific). Vol. 9(1), 1992, 1-2.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Editorial. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 2(1), 1992, 2-3.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Editorial. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 2(4), 1992, 40.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Know your Past 2: Historical Sites on Mile Island, Mile Atoll. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 2(1), 1992, 8-10
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Know your Past 3: Breadfruit Peelers: old technology but still high tech. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 2(1), 1992, 11.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Know your Past 4: Traditional Art. All Animals are marked and so shall you: Marshallese Men's Tattoos. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 2(2), 1992, 6-8,12.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Know Your Past 5: Traditional Marshallese Material Culture. Traditional Utilisation of Mangroves. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 2(2), 1992, 4-5.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Know Your Past 6: Traditional Art. All animals are marked and so shall you: Marshallese women's tattoos. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 2(4), 1992, 54-57; 62
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) The economic value of Historic Preservation. Ennaanin Etto -News from the Past 1992 Supplement, 6 pages.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Predictive Modelling of Settlement Expansion and its implications for Historic Preservation Efforts on Coral Atolls: A case study from Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Report Prepared for: National Park Service Cultural Resources Training Places of Value in the Midst of Change: Evaluation, Treatment and Negotiation in Cultural Resources Management. Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, May 18-22, 1992. Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Historic Preservation of all people, by all people, for all people. Multi-Cultural Resources Management-a Pacific Perspective. Speech given at the conference: "Fostering Appreciation for Cultural Diversity: Historic Preservation in `90s: Shaping America's communities by embracing the vitality of people and places. 46th National Preservation Conference, October 7-11, 1992, Miami, Florida. National Trust for Historic Preservation.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Torlokbok: Impacts of a potential rise in relative sea-level on the atolls of the Marshall Islands, Micronesia. In: P.Osborne & S.Burgin (eds.), Hawkesbury Centenary Conference. Climate Change: Implications for Natural Resources Management 25-26 November 1991. Programme & Abstracts. Richmond, NSW: University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury. P. 17.
     

    1991
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Don't forget the bamboo. On recognising and interpreting butchery marks in tropical faunal assemblages, some comments asking for caution. In: S.Solomon, I.Davidson & D.Watson (eds.), Problem solving in taphonomy. Archaeological and palaeontological studies from Europe, Africa and Oceania. Tempus. Archaeology and Material Culture Studies in Anthropology. Volume 2, 1990 (1991). St.Lucia, Queensland: Anthropology Museum University of Queensland. Pp.108-134.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Quo vadis Lapita? Oder: vom Aufstieg und Niedergang der Lapita-Kultur auf Tonga. Ein Beitrag zu Siedlungsmuster und geographischer Umwelt der Lapita-Kultur. In: B.Ilius & M.Laubscher (eds.), Circiumpacifica. Festschrift für Thomas S. Barthel. Band II: Ozeanien, Miszellen . Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang Verlag. 1990 (1991).Pp. 227-256.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) The role of pigs and dogs in the taphonomy of archaeological assemblages from Tonga. In: S.Solomon, I.Davidson & D.Watson (eds.), Problem solving in taphonomy. Archaeological and palaeontological stuides from Europe, Africa and Oceania. Tempus. Archaeology and Material Culture Studies in Anthropology . Volume 2, 1990 (1991). St.Lucia, Queensland: Anthropology Museum University of Queensland. Pp.101-107.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Selektion menschlicher Skelettreste in ausgewaschenen Grabstätten: eine Fallstudie von den Marshall-Inseln. Archo/ooologische Informationen 14(1), 1991, 32-40.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Sarah Colley (1991) Fire in a pit: effects of burning on faunal remains. Archaeozoologia III,1/2 1989 (1991), 51-64. 1990
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) The Majuro Cultural Garden. A Case for the Establishment of a Demonstration Garden of Traditionally Utilised Cultural Plants on Uliga Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Majuro Atoll: Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Taroa, Maloelap Atoll. Air Marshall Islands Sunday Escape . Folded tour brochure. Majuro: AIRMarshall Islands.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Mile, Mile Atoll. Air Marshall Islands Sunday Escape . Folded tour brochure. Majuro: AIRMarshall Islands.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Tonga Capital Places Tour . Suva: Tourism Council of the South Pacific.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Historic Preservation Calendar 1992 . Majuro: Ministry of Interior and Outer Islands Affairs, Historic Preservation Office.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Editorial. Ennaanin Etto-News from the Past 1(1), 2.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Know your Past 1: Historical Sites on Taroa Island, Maloelap Atoll. Ennaanin Etto-News from the Past 1(1), 5-6.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Marshall Islands: Arrowroot production. IRETA's South Pacific Agricultural News 9(5), August 1991, P. 3.
     

    1990
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1990) Changing Gender roles in Tongan Society: some comments based on archaeological observations. In: P.Herda, J.Terrell & N.Gunson (eds.), Tongan Culture and History . Papers from the 1stTongan History Conference held in Canberra 14-17 January 1987. Department of Pacific and South East Asian History, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1990) Zu Produktion und Funktion einiger mittelbronzezeitlicher und r^mischer Knochengero/oote aus Heldenbergen, Main-Kinzig-Kreis. Hanauer Geschichtsblätter 30, 1988 (1990), 37-54.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1990) Osteologische Untersuchungen an den tierischen Resten aus einer Siedlung der mittleren Bronzezeit bei Nidderau-Heldenbergen, Main-Kinzig-Kreis. Hanauer Geschichtsblätter 30, 1988 (1990), 7-36,
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. Gerry Byrne and Lloyd H. Belz (1990) An outline of the potential impacts of greenhouse gas generated climatic change and projected sea-level rise on Tongatapu, Kingdom of Tonga. With special emphasis on the Nuku'alofa township area. In: G.Pernetta & P.J.Hughes (eds.), Implications of expected climate changes in the South Pacific region: an overview. United Nations Environmental Programme Regional Seas Reports & Studies Series Vol. 128, 1990, 161-192.
    Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1990) Archaeology in the Marshall Islands: what is it all about. Video-film, VHS. 30 minutes


    This document forms part of the hypertext curriculum vitaeof Dr. Dirk H.R. Spennemann (Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia). If you arrived at this page through a search engine you may wish to call up http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem which will link you to the top of the frame-based CV.