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Cultural Heritage Management
Publications by Dirk HR Spennemann
 

in press
Edney, Joanne & Spennemann, Dirk HR (in press) Can artificial reefs reduce impacts on shipwrecks? The Management Dimension. Journal of Maritime Archaeology

Managers have been advocating the use of artificial reef wrecks (ARW) to diversify the experiences of recreational divers and thereby reduce the well-known impact on historic shipwrecks. To examine whether ARW can serve as substitutes this paper discusses the attitude of Australian divers to wreck diving in general and to ARW in particular. While the overwhelming majority of divers surveyed accepted the need for control, the experienced divers were less interested in ARW and less prepared to tolerate controls over their perceived freedom to dive wrecks. We present projections that show that this legacy issue will have largely resolved itself by 2025 due to attrition and natural ageing and propose a permitting system (through zoning) that limits access to ‘genuine’ wrecks those divers that hold specialty certificates with a demonstrated understanding of the historic significance of underwater cultural heritage and demonstrated proficiency in low-impact wreck diving.

 

2015
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2015) Diachronic Observations of the Decay of a Pisé Building at Jugiong (NSW). Institute for Land, Water and Society Report no. 85. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. 76pp

ISBN 978-1-86-467264-0
This study describes the remains of a nineteenth century pisé building at Jugiong (NSW), and the decay processes that affect it, drawing on a series of observations between 1993 and 2015. The majority of observed impacts are of a climatological nature. Thermal expansion and contraction of the sun-exposed north-facing sides of the walls has led to large-scale erosion. Moisture, in the particular splash impact of raindrops, has undercut the lower sections of walling, destabilising wall segments to point of collapse. The rate of decay is slow and gradual until a catastrophic collapse of wall segments occurs
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2015) Nineteenth Century Indigenous Land Use of Albury (NSW), as reflected in the historic sources. Institute for Land, Water and Society Report no. 83. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University.

ISBN 978-1-86-467262-6
This study summarises nineteenth century observations on Indigenous presence and use in the Albury area. The data have been culled from diaries, contemporary newspapers, maps and other publications. A major section deals with the various manifestations of Mungabareena (station, reserve, ford) and a general discussion of the various crossing places/fords across the Murray River.
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2015) The Disappearing Goanna. Twenty years’ of Accelerated Callus Growth obscuring the Design of A Carved Tree, Mungabareena Reserve, Albury (NSW). Institute for Land, Water and Society Report no. 87. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University.

Iv, 14 pp., ISBN 978-1-86-467267-1; DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3627.1206
During the 1994 NganGirra Festival, artist Darren Wighton carved a goanna into a river red gum at Mungabareena Reserve, Albury. This study compiles pictorial evidence of the appearance of the carving over time and examines the rate of callus growth obscuring the design. Management options are also discussed.
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2015) Techniques in Historic Preservation: Recording Corrugated Iron (NSW). Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University.

5 pp. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3526.9606
This brief guide sets out the various parameters for the recording of historic corrugated iron during the documentation of heritage properties.
[PDF document, Full text]

 

2012
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2012) Rapid Survey of a Subterranean Structure at the Albury Pioneer Cemetery. Report to AlburyCity. Albury: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. March 2012. 28pp.
[PDF document, Full text]
2011
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2011) 'Preserving the Past for the Future.' Contemporary Relevance and Historic Preservation. CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship , vol. 8, no 1&2, 2011 pp. 7-22.

The heritage management literature of the past decade abounds with statements that expound the aim of historic preservation is to 'preserve the past for the future.' That phraseology has been taken up by many professionals and commercial entities. Recently, it has become entwined with the concept cultural heritage stewardship. This paper examines the nature and theoretical underpinning of these assumptions. It demonstrates that the notion of stewardship for the benefit of future generations is fallible and in fact hinders us in the management of heritage for benefit the present generation.

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2011) The Cultural Landscape of the World War II Battlefield of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. Findings of a cultural heritage survey, carried out in June 2009. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. 552pp.
[PDF document, Full text]
Spennemann, Dirk HR, Clemens, Janet & Kozlowski, Janis (2011) Scars on the Tundra: the cultural landscape of the Kiska Battlefield, Aleutians. Alaska Park Science, vol. 10, no 1, pp. 16-21

The events of World War II transformed Kiska Island in the Aleutians into a cultural landscape that is truly unique on a global scale. Following more than 120 years without human settlement, Kiska was briefly occupied by over 7,000 Japanese troops (June 1942-July 1943), and after their withdrawal, by a garrison of 1,200 US troops (August 1943-November 1944). After the end of the war it became once more uninhabited and today forms part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. The short burst of heavy military development resulted in a wide range of cultural resources on the island, ranging from midget submarines to aircraft wrecks, from piers to tent sites. This paper describes the resources on the island, discusses their significance on a global scale, and outlines the role and extent of NPS involvement (1986, 1989, 2007, and 2009) in the management of this unique place of our nation's heritage.

 
 

2009
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2009) On the Nature of the Cultural Heritage Values of Space Craft Crash Sites. Chapter 41 in: in: Darrin, Ann and O'Leary, Beth (eds) Handbook of Space Engineering, Archaeology and Heritage. London: CRC Press. Pp. 781800

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Murphy, Guy (2009) Failed Mars Mission Landing Sites: Heritage Places Or Forensic Investigation Scenes. Chapter 23 in: Darrin, Ann and O'Leary, Beth (eds) Handbook of Space Engineering, Archaeology and Heritage. London: CRC Press. Pp. 457—479.

ABSTRACT

 

2007
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2007) On the Cultural Heritage of Robots. International Journal of Heritage Studies vol. 13 no. 1, pp. 4-21.

Cultural Heritage Management is an inherently retrospective discipline. To the detriment of future heritage management, some heritage places were not recognised and managed even though they had instant global significance after their creation (eg sites of the Apollo space program). The current revolution in robotic technologies, coupled with the developments in artificial intelligence, suggests that the creation of self-reflective robots capable of semi-independent thought (processes) is not too far away. This paper explores the conceptual and ethical issues heritage managers face when dealing with the heritage such robots will create

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Extreme Cultural Tourism: From Antarctica to the Moon. Annals of Tourism Research vol. 34 no. 4, pp 898918

Humanity has an affinity for adventure and discovery. History has shown that places previously deemed out of reach have been visited and that in the wake of intrepid individuals follow an adventurous few and finally that segment of the general tourist population that can afford it. Thus increasingly remote heritage places have come under threat from visitation. It is time to consider the implications of future visitation of heritage sites on the lunar surface. While ecotourism principles can be espoused on Planet Earth, the mere visitation of lunar landing sites if the Apollo program can diminish their heritage value.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Of Great Apes and Robots: Considering the Future(s) of Cultural Heritage. Futures—The journal of policy, planning and futures studies vol. 39 no. 7, pp. 861877.

Because cultural heritage management is an inherently retrospective discipline, too many valuable heritage places have been lost because they are not recognised and assessed in time. This paper advances strategic thinking in cultural heritage management by addressing two onthehorizon and overthehorizon issues: the management of artefacts created by our closest relatives, the Great Apes; and the management of artefacts created in the future by the first artificial intelligenceimbued, selfreflecting robots. .

Given the increasing understanding that Chimpanzees have cultures and traditions in tool use, there is a need to recognise their heritage value in reference to human evolution. Likewise, it is now also time to explore how we are going to deal with the nonhuman, robotid artefacts. Te contemplation of the role of nonhuman heritage will ultimately foster a reappraisal of human heritage. The paper outlines some of the conceptual issues that need to be addressed if our heritage is to have an ethical future.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) The Futurist Stance of Historical Societies: An analysis of positioning statements. International Journal of Arts Management vol. 9 no. 2, pp. 415.

Historical societies are not known for their proactive stance. In the public perception they are retrospective, often parochial and adverse to change. The advent of the World Wide Web in the mid1990s has made these societies more visible and more accessible to a nonlocal audience. The historical societies have responded by developing position statements to market their 'services.' To project a sense of agency, many societies draw on phrases such as 'preserving the past for the future,' signalling a vision. This paper surveys the futurist stance embodied in position statements and explores their implications for the underlying ideologies of the historical societies. The investigation reveals a discrepancy between the mission statements and the progressive stance of the 'tagline.' This story of futurist positioning is a cautionary tale for any arts industry tempted to jump on a bandwagon.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) A Line in the Sand? Explorations of the Cultural Heritage Value of Hominid, Pongid and Robotid Artefacts. International Journal Cultural Property vol 14 no. 2, pp. 241266.

Although cultural heritage management is an inherently retrospective discipline, there is a need for strategic forward thinking. Too many valuable heritage places have been lost because they are not recognised and assessed in time. This paper takes strategic thinking in cultural heritage management one step further and addresses the management of artifactual material created by our closest relatives, the Great Apes. Given the increasing understanding that Chimpanzees have cultures and traditions in tool use, there is a need to recognise their heritage value in reference to human evolution.
Expanding the concept of nonhuman heritage into the future, it is now also time to explore how we are going to deal with the artefacts that the first artificial intelligenceimbued, selfreflecting robots will create. By extension, we need to consider which artefacts will be kept along the way. The contemplation of the role of nonhuman heritage will ultimately foster a reappraisal of human heritage. The paper outlines some of the conceptual issues that need to be addressed if our heritage is to have an ethical future.

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2007) Futurist rhetoric in us historic preservation: A review of current practice. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing. Vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 9199.

Historic Preservation is an inherently retrospective discipline. The evaluation of the tangible manifestations of the cultural environment surrounding us is solely based on hindsight. At the same time the heritage profession has espoused a futurist stance by arguing that the heritage sites need to be managed and preserved in a spirit of altruistic stewardship for the benefit of future generations. This paper examines the notion of 'preserving the past for the future', will assess its ubiquity of the phraseology and attempt to trace its origins and diachronic development. It will posit that the steep rise in popularity of futurist positioning statements, titles of publications and slogans on heritage posters is connected with a public perception of uncertainty about the present and the immediate future, and a concomitant 'flight' into the largely nostalgic perception of the past.

Spennemann, Dirk HR & Murphy, Guy (2007) Technological Heritage on Mars: Towards a Future of Terrestrial Artifacts on the Martian Surface. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. Vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 4253.

For the past 45 years the red planet has been the focus of human space exploration. Commencing with the crash landing of Mars 2 some 35 years ago, humanity has left a range of traces on the Martian surface. This paper provides an overview of the successful landing missions and the material culture these missions deposited on the surface of Mars. Environmental conditions on Mars are also considered, as these differ from those of the earth, and have important implications for the future integrity and management of these sites. This essay is the first step in a systematic appraisal of the cultural heritage values these sites possess for humanity at large and how such sites should be managed for the benefit of humankind.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) An Integrated Architecture for successful Heritage Site Management Planning. CRM: The Journal of Heritage Stewardship vol. 4 no. 2, pp. 1828.

In current practice, planning for Heritage Site Management is a fragmented effort. All too often, completed conservation management plans outdate quickly and then sit on the shelf unrevised. This paper sets out a model architecture for an integrated Heritage Site Management Plan that addresses all aspects involved in managing a heritage site. Through its modular approach the plan architecture allows plans to be addressing a site's unique needs while maintaining currency through stratified review cycles.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Secondary use of artefacts and the development of a new historical context: an example of the jet age. Studies in Contemporary and Emergent Heritage (ISSN 18344208) no. 1, pp. 16

ABSTRACT

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) :The Enemy from Below" Assessing Salinity Risk when Managing the Future of our Historic Building Stock. Proceedings of the 2007 Urban Salinity Conference. Bicentennial Park Homebush Bay, New South Wales May 2223, 2007. Sydney: Western Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils. Online. http://www.wsroc.com.au

Urban salinity is an increasing problem that shows little prospect of abating any time soon. When most of our historic building stock was erected some 30, 50 or 100 years ago, the builders did not have to content with high water tables. As result, many structures today lack damp proof courses, making them particularly vulnerable to salinity attack. Depending on the building materials used this impact can be very severe, potentially threatening a structure's very longterm survival. As our historic building stock defines many regional and rural communities by circumscribing their history and cultural identity, any loss of historic fabric is deplorable at the least and devastating at worst. This paper outlines the underlying physical processes that lead to salt attack and how salinisation of buildings can be detected. The second part of the paper will review some of the available conservation treatments and will discuss what we know about the longterm viability of such treatments

O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2008) Education and Cultural Change: a view from Micronesia. International Journal of Educational Development vol. 28 no. 1, 206217

Traditionally, transmission of cultural knowledge between generations in Micronesia was the role of family, in particular parents and grand parents. To what extent is that role still important today? In this article, we draw on data obtained from questionnaires distributed to children and adults throughout Micronesia in 2002 and 2003 to consider how culture is being transferred between generations today. We argue the importance of local communities being closely involved in all aspects of formal education including developing and managing schools and their curricula to ensure that local aspirations are satisfied. Micronesian children have expressed preferences for favourite food, drink, and entertainment that follow international trends closely and are moving away from traditional choices. The data also show a shift away from traditional familybased cultural education to a more formal schoolbased model that emphasises the importance of teachers being familiar and sympathetic with local culture.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Meyenn, Bob (2007) Cultural Heritage Management and Curriculum Development in Melanesia DomoDomo (Suva) vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 3753

The paper looks at the relationship between traditional education as practiced under the rules of 'kastom' for thousands of years and the formal school education system imposed by the colonial powers. Tensions between these approaches have significant implications for a nationo.s cultural identity as well as the management of the cultural heritage which are inextricably intertwined with the way we approach the education of children.
We argue for a multitiered curriculum that allows for the localisation of content and thus the fostering of culture and traditions while, at the same time, ensuring that the aims of national curricula are met.

Spennemann, Dirk HR and Sutherland, Gaye (2007) Potential Theft of Heavy Artefacts. An Examination of the Carrying Capacity of All Terrain Vehicles. Report prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska, Albury: Heritage Futures International. 13pp

ABSTRACT

 

2006
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Digital Futures in Micronesia: cultural management and the role of the Micronesian expatriate communities in Hawaii in the mainland USA. Micronesian Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 580-595

The maintenance of a community's cultural identity is subject to the community's perception of selfworth and its resilience towards outside influences. Historic preservation in Micronesia has a stake in this maintenance. While external influences driven by commercialization and globalization are ever present, their influences were mitigated by the external nature of the agents of change. The increased emigration of Micronesian communities to Hawaii and the mainland USA has created a situation where a sizeable population of stakeholders resides outside the community. This paper examines the implications of increased technological connectivity (internet, cellphones) on cultural management in Micronesia and shows that the new technologies allow for cultural influences to flow back to Micronesia with community members as agents of change possessing inherently greater persuasive powers
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Cultural Heritage Management in Micronesia. The State of Play at the beginning of the 21st millennium. Micronesian Journal for the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 1-30

Forty years after the US Historic Preservation Act was passed with applicability to the (then) Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and 20 years after some of the Micronesian entities regained some control over the management of their on heritage, it is time to take stock. Based on the papers of the special journal issue on cultural heritage management in Micronesia, this paper sets out the state of play of the various aspects of cultural heritage management and outlines pathways for future developments
[PDF document, Full text]

 

O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) A Review of Historic Preservation Funding In Micronesia 1986-2003. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 545-556

The recent political independence of Micronesian communities that once formed the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) (administered by the United States) has driven some rapid and wide-ranging developments. Not all changes have been welcomed by local communities, and a strong desire for valued cultural elements to be preserved in culturally appropriate ways has emerged. Current management of formal historic preservation processes in Micronesia predominantly follows western concepts, particularly those used by the United States of America. Historic Preservation legislation originating in the U.S. has been largely transferred into local Micronesian legal and administrative frameworks.
    With few exceptions, historic preservation in Micronesia is also largely funded by external entities, and once again, the United States provides the bulk of that funding. The cultural differences that are clearly apparent between the U.S. and Micronesian political entities continue to generate misunderstandings, confusion, and frustration on both sides. Donor funded preservation programmes tend to preserve cultural elements that are favoured by those donors and, in the past at least, local preferences have often not been given the emphasis they deserve. Funding of historic preservation in Micronesia involves several sources and there are significant differences between the Freely Associated States (FAS) and Guam and the CNMI
[PDF document, Full text]

 
O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Cultural Traditions: the Realities for Elementary School Children in Micronesia. Micronesian Educator vol. 11 no. 1, pp. 1-26

Micronesian Children are increasingly exposed to commercialism and western forms of advertising. How will that affect current and future perception of traditional culture? The paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey administered to 581 school children across Micronesia. The respondents expressed strong preferences for 'favourite' items that have little or no traditional cultural connections and are international in scope. Choices of 'favourite' entertainment, of reading material, television, videos, music, and dancing, choices of preferred food and drink, all show an emerging internationalising of their preferences.
    If it is the wish of the Micronesian people to retain elements of their traditional cultures then concerted and deliberate, conscious action to prioritize and implement management processes that are appropriate to their cultures and circumstances must be taken soon. Cultural change is occurring with increasing rapidity throughout Micronesia and local communities are in a situation where their capacity to exercise control is limited

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Lorence, David (2006) Weed Infestation and its impact on the preservation of a Japanese-era Concrete building in Micronesia. The Agricultural Research Station, Pwunso, Nett, Pohnpei. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 458-471

High rainfall tropical environments are very conducive to luxuriant plant growth. While welcome for the management of tropical plant collections and botanical gardens, such conditions of plant growth can be detrimental to historic properties. This paper provides and analysis of the weed infestation of a Japanese concrete structure in Pohnpei, discussing the nature of the infestation, the origin of the seed material and the implications for management
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Look, David (2006) Impact of Tropical vegetation On World War II-Era cultural resources in the Marshall Islands. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 440-462

The tropical environments prevalent on the islands of the Central Pacific is deleterious to the preservation of cultural materials. This is particular so for metal-based items, which make up the bulk of the extant material cultural associated with World War II sites. This paper views the impacts posed by the vegetation on the preservation of the remains of aircraft, guns and other equipment
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Examples of Adaptive re-Use of World War II Artefacts in Micronesia. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 268-284

Many Pacific Islands are littered with the remains of World War II. These remains range from the wrecks of ships, tanks and aircraft, to costal defense installations and general base infrastructure. The abundance of material left behind after the cessation of hostilities meant that local communities had abundant opportunity to salvage elements and put them to their own use. This paper provides an overview of the nature of adaptive reuse to which World War II artefacts have been put in Micronesia, highlighting the impact on heritage sites but also the innovation and transmodification that occurred, establishing new historic contexts for the artefacts
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Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Managing unexploded ammunition at and near cultural heritage sites. Issues for Micronesian Historic Preservation. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 234-267

Unexploded ammunition is a common hazard among heritage sites that have been the focus of military action. As the unpredictable nature of such ammunition threatens the wellbeing of management staff and visitors alike, unexploded items are normally removed and destroyed. That action, on the other hand, contravenes the principle that heritage sites should be in place and preserved unchanged to the extent feasible. This paper sets out the historical conditions that rise to the problem, discussed the nature and extent o the problem and strives to find an balanced approach that safeguards human life and health, while at the same time reduces the impact to the heritage places thus managed
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) The Archaeological Manifestation of Contemporary Marshallese Burial Practices. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 79-99

While prehistoric and early historic burials in Micronesia are on occasion uncovered either as a result of construction activities or due to shoreline erosion, there is no information how modern burial practices might be recognisable in the present and future archaeological record. This paper describes the observations made during exhumations and provides for some projections how modern burials might be interpretable in the future
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Yalmambirra & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Gawaimbanna - Gu Wiradjuri Nhurranbaang (Welcome to Wiradjuri Country). Australasian Journal of Regional Studies vol. 12 no. 3, pp. 383-393

For too long Indigenous Australian communities have been labelled 'Aboriginal,' lumped together and treated as one indiscriminate population. Yet before the onset of European administration, there was no collective concept for the original owners of this continent, and each community, culturally divergent from its neighbours, had its own identity. This paper addresses some of the issues and argues for the need to establish separate, and culturally specific and localised consultation protocols to ensure that proper consultation occurs wherever the culture and heritage of the local Indigenous community is concerned

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) A Fading Present, a Lost Future Past? Researching the Heritage of Modern Shopping Arcades. Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 202-212

Shopping arcades and shopping malls have become ubiquitous in urban settings. Several historic buildings have been converted into arcades, while new malls have been built. In most cases the shop spaces provided in the arcades has a high level of turn over of tenants, often changing the use of the shops in the process. Using a case study from Albury, this paper reviews the available processes and the problems faced when reconstructing tenant histories of such facilities, and highlights the need to concerted action.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2006). Your solution, their problem. Their solution, your problem: The Gordian Knot of Cultural Heritage Planning and Management at the Local Government Level. disP vol. 42, no. 164 - 1/2006, pp. 30-40.

Cultural heritage management is, in essence, a facet of social engineering, whereby physical remains of the past (and present) are selectively preserved pandering to values currently held by the population at large. Indeed, mid- and long-term protection of heritage places can only occur if such places are ‘embraced’ or ‘owned’ by the community. However, public opinion, often coloured by nostalgia, omits, consciously or subconsciously, places that do not fit the present value system. Thus, inevitably there are places, which may be identified by expert opinion, that need to be preserved even if a community is apathetic or even antagonistic. Such differences of opinion allow for conflict to occur. Local planning and the implementation of planning priorities is inevitably caught up in it. The political dimension at the LGA level further complicates matters, particularly as we move from one heritage to a multitude of ‘heritages.’
     Over the past decade the management of cultural heritage matters at the local government level has seen the decline of top-down, expert-driven studies, while bottom-up, community-driven, or at least community influenced, studies have increased. Both approaches have their failings and lead to gaps in the record.
      Furthermore, all too often heritage plans are limited. Great effort is expended focusing on the historic trends and themes of an area, and on inventorising, evaluating and listing of places deemed worth protecting. Yet next to no effort is spent on implementation strategies, ranging from capacity building within the administering local government to education of property owners, wider stakeholders, the public resident in the LGA and outside visitors.
      This paper discusses the pitfalls inherent in these various planning approaches and outlines strategies for LGA-level planning and management to maximise returns from heritage planning projects.

Graham, Kristy and Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2006) Disaster management and cultural heritage: An investigation of perceptions held by New South Wales Rural Fire Service Brigade Captains. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies. Volume 2006-1 http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2006-1/graham.htm.

The protection of life and property will always be the priority in any disaster situation. At the same time other considerations often fall by the way side and short-term decisions are made that have irreperable implications on environmental and cultural heritage issues. Anecdotal information and pilot studies suggested that there are a number of attitudinal barriers that limit disaster planning for cultural heritage resources. In an attempt to provide empirical evidence of these attitudinal barriers a postal survey was distributed to Rural Fire Service Brigade Captains throughout New South Wales (Australia). The results highlight limited understanding of cultural heritage issues, limited exposure to dealing with such resources in disaster situations and limited communication between heritage and disaster management agencies. LINK to paper

 

2005
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2005). Is unexploded World War II ammunition abandoned property? A case of ethics and the law in Micronesia. Journal of South Pacific Law vol.9 (2), December 2005 http://law.vanuatu.usp.ac.fj/jspl/current/art3

During World War II the atolls and islands of Micronesia were the focus of military development, extensive fighting and bombardment. By the end of that war the islands were littered with unexpended Japanese ammunition and with US ordnance that had failed to explode on impact. This paper examines the legal and moral ownership of that ammunition, as it has a bearing on its management in the modern historic preservation context. LINK to paper

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Kosmer, Linda (2005) Heritage sites of the US Space Program in Australia: are we managing them adequately? QUEST - The History of Spaceflight Quarterly vol. 12 no. 2, pp. 52-64

Because of Australia's geographical and geopolitical situation, NASA established or utilised a number of space tracking stations on Australian soil. All of the crewed space missions were for part of their orbits controlled from Australian stations, culminating in the landing of the first human being on the moon. While arguably less iconographic than rockets, capsules or launch towers, without these tracking stations mission success and astronaut safety could not be assured. This paper reviews what remains of these stations and how current heritage management in Australia deals with its own tangible evidence of humanity's endeavour to explore space.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2005) The Naval heritage of Project Apollo: a case of losses. Journal of Maritime Research October 2005, www.jmr.nmm.ac.uk/spennemann

For twenty years American astronauts returned from their space adventures by splashing into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It was the US Navy's task to recover them, and their spacecraft, safely and swiftly. To assist in tracking and communicating with the astronauts in space, the Military Sea Transport Service operated a number of telemetry vessels on behalf of the US Navy and US Air Force. While not as spectacular as the activities surrounding the launch of the rockets, the naval component of the US space program of the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo era was instrumental to its success and overall excellent safety record. Historic Preservation is about the intentional, selective preservation of heritage items for the benefit of future generations. This paper reviews which, if any, elements of the naval heritage of the US Space program have been preserved, and which processes have been employed to undertake the selection and assessment .

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Die Atoll Post der Marshall Inseln: Geplante Analyse und Vorl?ufiger Katalog. Berliner Protokolle Heft 75, Juni 2005, 116

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Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) No. 532 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. Observations made during the demolition of the structure. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report no. 102. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) Documenting Tenant Sequences for Properties 526, 528-530 and 532 Kiewa Street, Albury. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report no. 103. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

The report details the tenant histories of the 1970s conversion of the former stables building into a shopping arcade. Photographic docuentation of shops is provided where photographs couldbe sourced.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) No. 528-530 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. Observations made during the demolition of the structure. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report no. 130. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) No. 526 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. Observations made during the demolition of the structure. Report by AlburyCity. Johnstone Centre Environmental Consultancy Report no. 131. Albury & Wagga Wagga, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Costs Incurred When Housing Restored Aircraft: Results of a Rapid E-mail Survey of Aviation Museums. Report to the Uiver Working Party, AlburyCity. Albury: Albury City Council and Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Melpomene of the Gardens. A Background History to the Statue of Melpomene in the grounds of the Albury Botanic Gardens. Albury: Albury City Council and Charles Sturt University.
 

2004
Hughes, Sue, Spennemann, Dirk HR., Harvey, Ross (2004) Tracing the material culture of the goldfields' press in colonial Victoria. Media History. vol. 10 no. 2. pp 89-102.

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Spennemann, Dirk HR (2004). Your solution, their problem. Their solution, your problem: The Gordian Knot of Cultural Heritage Planning and Management at the Local Government Level. Paper Presented at Planning Institute of Australia Conference 2004: Planning on the Edge. Hobart 22 - 26 February 2004. Included on conference CD,

Cultural heritage management is, in essence, a facet of social engineering, whereby physical remains of the past (and present) are selectively preserved pandering to values currently held by the population at large. Indeed, mid- and long-term protection of heritage places can only occur if such places are ‘embraced’ or ‘owned’ by the community. However, public opinion, often coloured by nostalgia, omits, consciously or subconsciously, places that do not fit the present value system. Thus, inevitably there are places, which may be identified by expert opinion, that need to be preserved even if a community is apathetic or even antagonistic. Such differences of opinion allow for conflict to occur. Local planning and the implementation of planning priorities is inevitably caught up in it. The political dimension at the LGA level further complicates matters, particularly as we move from one heritage to a multitude of ‘heritages.’
Over the past decade the management of cultural heritage matters at the local government level has seen the decline of top-down, expert-driven studies, while bottom-up, community-driven, or at least community influenced, studies have increased. Both approaches have their failings and lead to gaps in the record.
Furthermore, all too often heritage plans are limited. Great effort is expended focusing on the historic trends and themes of an area, and on inventorising, evaluating and listing of places deemed worth protecting. Yet next to no effort is spent on implementation strategies, ranging from capacity building within the administering local government to education of property owners, wider stakeholders, the public resident in the LGA and outside visitors.
This paper discusses the pitfalls inherent in these various planning approaches and outlines strategies for LGA-level planning and management to maximise returns from heritage planning projects.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (1997 [2004]) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation & Interpretation Project. Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Draft Conservation Management Plan. Johnstone Centre Report nª 103. Albury, N.S.W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. Reset digital version: 2004

Conservation Management Plan for the ruins of the first custom-built research builing one of the NSW Department of Agriculture Research Farms. Designed by Nathan A Cobb, the two storey building was the first to utilise reinforced concrete fo a roof.

 

2003
O’Neill, Jon G. & Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) The Joachim De Brum House, Likiep Atoll, Marshall Islands—an outstanding example of Micronesian plantation architecture. The Micronesian Journal of the Human-ities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2 no 1?2, pp. 31-41.

The deBrum House on Likiep Island, Likiep Atoll, Marshall Islands is a cultural heritage site, which is unique in the Marshall Islands, in Micronesia and in fact in most of the Pacific. As a complete colonial period homestead replete with much of the original furnishings, include. Books, phonograph rolls and glass plate negatives it provides a unique insight into both the living conditions of affluent planters during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, as well as into the mind of an exceptional Marshallese man, Joachim deBrum.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) Teacher and Student perceptions of the cultural heritage of the CNMI. An empirical snap-shot. The Micronesian Journal of the Human-ities and Social Sciences. Vol. 2 no 1?2, pp. 50-58.

Community attitudes towards heritage are nor well studied in Micronesia. This paper presents the results of a study of the attitudes of teachers, college and high school students of the CNMI. It shows that traditional aspects outrank those on the colonial past. Also differences in significance between Chamorro and Carolinian sites were observed.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 526 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 188. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of 'Kiewa House.' The report provides a description of the fabric of the building as it appeared in 2003, of the building's history, as well as the historic context in which the structure needs to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 528-530 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 189. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of 'Kiewa House.' The report provides a description of the fabric of the building as it appeared in 2003, of the building's history, as well as the historic context in which the structure needs to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 532 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 190. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of 'Kiewa House.' The report provides a description of the fabric of the building as it appeared in 2003, of the building's history, as well as the historic context in which the structure needs to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 534-36 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 191. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of the property, now a vacant block used as a council carpark. The report provides a description of the history of the buidlings that existed on the site, as well as the historic context in which the structures need to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) nª 538-540 Kiewa Street, Albury, NSW. An Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values. Johnstone Centre Report nª 192. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Historical Analysis of the Site and an Assessment of Heritage Values of the property, now a vacant block used as a council carpark. The report provides a description of the history of the buidlings that existed on the site, as well as the historic context in which the structures need to be seen. An assessment of the heritage value of the property is also provided, together with projections on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2003) Archaeological Assessment of European Cultural Heritage Potential Albury Cultural Precinct Stage 1. Johnstone Centre Report nª 187. Albury, N. S. W. : The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

This report extracts all information developed in the varois studies on the properties 526, 528-530, 532, 534-536 and 538-540 Kiewa Street and provides a concise projection on the likleihood that subsurface remains of sites of the buildings may be present and how that matter should be handled in the case that demolitions were to commence..

 

2002
O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2002) German Colonial Heritage in post-colonial Micronesia. Pacific Studies vol. 25, no 3, pp. 1-16.

Micronesia has a long history of colonial occupation: Spanish, German, Japanese and finally US American. Each of these powers has left tangible remains of their occupation and each has influenced the preservation of Micronesian culture. This paper explores the nature of historic preservation of colonial sites and property in a post-colonial world. What are the priorities and what are the constraints for Micronesian countries to manage their colonial past at a time when cultural self-determination has become reality?.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and O'Halloran, Charmain (2002) Waste of recreational boating and fishing as a source of archaeological site contamination on the bottom lands of inland reservoirs. Australian Journal of Environmental Management vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 21-26.

A survey found archaeological sites on the bottom of the Hume Reservoir to be contaminated by modern refuse, particularly glass bottles. The debris is deposited by recreational fishermen while the reservoir is filled. The contamination creates two problems: a threat to the integrity of the archaeological record; and a threat derived from well-meaning, but uncontrolled community clean-up operations removing both modern debris and historic heritage items from a site.

 

2001
Lockwood, Michael & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Value conflicts between natural and cultural heritage conservation - Australian experience and the contribution of economics. in: Heritage economics: challenges for heritage conservation and sustainable development in the 21st Century. Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission. Pp. 216-242.

Conflicts between natural and cultural heritage conservation occur across several domains. People disagree over the definitions of terms such as 'natural', 'cultural', and 'wilderness'. There are a range of views on matters of principle, such as whose heritage should be considered, and whether non-negotiable standards should apply to some conservation issues. Clashes of culture occur between various stakeholders: Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, 'mainstream' and minority groups, and amongst professionals from different disciplinary backgrounds. The aspirations and behaviour of traditional owners, environmentalists, recreationists, traditional users, and those who have links with previous uses and sites, can lead to a range of management issues. On public land, management agencies face the difficult task of allocating scarce resources, and are sometimes are forced to decide between natural and cultural heritage. They may also have to address conflicting management objectives.
We discuss each of these domains, and give examples of where such conflicts have influenced Australian cultural and natural heritage conservation. We then identify where economic methods and instruments have the potential to contribute to their resolution. Economics is not very useful for resolving conflicts over definitions, principles, or cultural differences. These matters must be resolved through the various participatory, deliberative, democratic and judicial processes. Economics can be used to justify public investment in heritage management, assist resource allocation and land use decisions, demonstrate the contribution heritage makes to an economy, optimise resource utilisation and establish sound pricing policies for heritage resources. Suitable economic methods for these purposes include non-market valuation and benefit cost analysis, regional economic analysis, cost effectiveness analysis and marginal cost pricing. We suggest education, research and advocacy roles for the AHC in relation to heritage economics and dispute resolution.

Canning, Shaun and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Contested space: social value and the assessment of cultural significance in New South Wales, Australia. in: M.M.Cotter, W.E. Boyd and J.E Gardiner (eds) Heritage Landscapes: Understanding Place and Communities. Proceedings of the Lismore Conference. Lismore, NSW: Southern Cross University Press. Pp. 457-468.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Lockwood, Michael & Harris, Kellie (2001) The Eye of the Professional vs. Opinion of the Community Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 no 2, pp. 16-18.

Cultural Heritage Planning in Australia is conducted by specialists drawlines. Communities are normally only consulted through public meetings are focus groups. This paper summarises the results of a study where all households in a shire where surveyed by mail to nominate heritage places of interest. The findings showed that community perceptions differed from those held by professionals.

O'Neill, Jon and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) German Colonial Heritage in Micronesia Cultural Resource Management vol. 24 no 1, pp. 46-47.

Brief article discussing the current approaches to the survival of German cultural heritage resources in Micronesia. The paper identifies the major dissonance between the limited funding and technical expertise available in the countries and the need to prioritise their own indigenous heritage.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Conservation Needs Assessment Vandalised Statue of Melpomene, Albury Botanic Gardens. Johnstone Centre Report nª 199. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University

A conservation needs assessment of repair works for the Statue of Melpomene, Albury Botanic Gardens, which had been vandalised. The statue had been pushed off the pedestal and had broke to pieces. This work was carried out pro bono as part of the author's commitment to local heritage issues.

 

 

2000
O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Conservation Assessment of the Joachim De Brum House, Likiep Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Johnstone Centre Report nª 151. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. ISBN 1 86467 085 1.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Hundertwasser. Art, Architecture and Heritage in Bad Soden, Germany. The Journal of Architecture 5, pp. 117-136.

Without doubt, the 1993-completed "Hundertwasser in den Wiesen" in Bad Soden (Germany) constitutes a radical departure from standard condominium development, established western building design principles and and provides a conceptual and visual challenge to citizen and visitor alike. The pueblo design avoids to the maximum extent possible the use of horizontal and geometrical forms. The building complex according to Hundertwasser conceptualised as a reunfication of human living with natural principles incorporates a historic heritage-listed structure.
This paper discusses the building, both from the view of architecture and art, followed by an introduction to the architect/artist and his work. A description of the controversies surrounding the structure follows, giving way to a discussion of various aspects of heritage and heritage management with special emphasis on issues relating to the treatment of an adjacent heritage listed building. Some observations on the future of the Hundertwasser complex conclude the paper.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Eight-inch Coastal Defense Guns in Micronesia. Coast Defense Study Group Journal 14(2), pp. 40-64.

Paper describing the Italian-built but British-pattern battleship guns, which were emplaced as coastal defense guns by the Japanese Navy on Chuuk, Tarawa and Wake Island during World War II. The paper discusses the origin, history and current status of the guns.

 

1999
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) British Naval Heritage in Micronesia-The coastal defense guns of the Marshalls, Pohnpei and Chuuk. Coast Defense Study Group Journal 13(1), pp. 34-56.

Paper outlining the nature and origin of Japanese coastal defense guns emplaced on the atolls of the Marshall Islands. The vast majority of the guns stem from British warships which had been bought by the Japanese in prior to World War I and which had to be decommissioned following the Washington Treaty of 1922.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Marcar, Nico (1999) Urban and heritage landscapes. Under the saline threat. Natural Resource Management 2(1), 14-17.

Human-induced dryland and irrigation salinity are major forms of land degradation in rural areas, particularly in southern Australia. Salinity is also impacting significantly on the historic environment that makes Australia's country towns so different from the sprawling suburbia of larger cities. It is not only historic buildings but also formal private gardens and street plantings that are being affected and placed at risk. This is because many plants, especially those introduced to Australia and commonly used in these situations, are susceptible to elevated soil salinity levels. Any changes in the vegetative make up of Australian towns are likely to alter their character. This paper reviews the nature of the threat and the extent of the impending change, and discusses the relative merits of the various mitigation options available.
  

 

1998
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) German Colonial Heritage in Micronesia in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report no. 123. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. p. 45.
Lipscombe, Neil, Cosgriff, Kevin, Klomp, Nick, Spennemann, Dirk H.R.(1998) Eurobodalla National Park, NSW, Lake Brou. Day Use and Camping Facilities. Design Proposal and review of Environmental Factors. Johnstone Centre Report nª 112. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. 64 pp.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R.(1998) The potential impacts of proposed recreation facilities on cultural heritage sites at Lake Brou, Narooma, Eurobodalla National Park. Johnstone Centre Report nª 111. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) "Is there a Problem.?" Urban Salinity and Heritage in the Murray-Darling Basin in: Conference Proceedings "Urban salinity, a snapshot of the future" Wagga Wagga, 11 and 12 August 1998, Albury: Australian Association of Natural Resource Management. Pp. 153-163.

The perceptions of heritage managers related to the incidence of salinity and its impact on heritage were surveyed in 149 local government areas (LGAs) in the Murray-Darling Basin. They survey administered in December 1997 and January 1998 (response rate 76%) showed that salinity is seen primarily as a rural problem affecting agriculturally productive land. The threat of salinity to heritage structures was ranked similar to domestic homes, roads and the like.

In comparison to other threats impacting on the cultural heritage places in the LGAs salinity was seen as one on the smallest threats, only exceeded by earthquakes. The study found high levels of 'don't know' answers, indicating that education needs exist, but that these needs are varied in the community of heritage officers.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Urban Salinity and Cultural Heritage: Studying the impact of an anthropogenic disaster in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report no. 123. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. p. 46.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Mitigating salt attack in our historic environment. in Nico Marcar (ed.) Managing saltland into the 21st century (Tamworth 10-12 March 1998) Conference Papers [Preprints]. Canberra: CSIRO, Forestry and Forest Products. pp. 13-18.

Urban salinity is exacting its toll on the historic environment that makes our country towns so different from the sprawling suburbia of the metropolitan cities. Historic buildings are very susceptible to raised saline ground water levels. This paper reviews the nature of the threat and the extent of the impending change, and discusses the relative merits of the various mitigation options available not only in terms of cost to the community, but also in terms of the ethical management of our irreplaceable cultural heritage.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) The olive grove at Charles Sturt University. Bulletin of the Wagga Wagga Historical Society 312, pp. 4-8.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Allen, L. Richard (1998) From food to weed in 150 years: Human and non-human dispersal of olives in Australia in: Allan Curtis and Lynda Wilson (eds), The Johnstone Centre 1998 Workshop Abstracts. Johnstone Centre Report no. 123. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. p. 49.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Cultural heritage management of unexploded ammunition. CRM Bulletin 21(8), pp. 48-51.

The paper reviews the issues of unexploded ordnance removal at and near heritage sites and provides options for action, aimed at safe guarding life and property of visitors and heritage managers while at the same time not unduly impairing the heritage items.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. III. Impact on heritage resources and eradication. Johnstone Centre Report no. 120. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Nathan Cobb's Laboratory Conservation and Interpretation Project. The spread of olives (Olea sp.) on Wagga Wagga Campus. I. Biology and History. Johnstone Centre Report no. 100. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.

 

1997
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Urban Salinity as a threat to cultural heritage places. A primer on the mechanics and effects of chloridation. Albury, NSW: Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. Pp. 14pp. ISBN: 1 875 758 47 X
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Compounding the effect of dryland salinity: manurial applications of salt in the 19th century. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report nª 97. Albury, NSW: Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. ISBN: 1 875758 64 X
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) And the walls came tumbling and crumbling down: Dryland and urban salinity as a threat to the historical heritage of the Southern Riverina in: Jim Pratley (ed.), Proceedings of the 1996 Annual Conference of the Riverina Academy of Sciences Wagga Wagga., Wagga Wagga: Charles Sturt University. Pp. 1-16.

Dryland salinity not only poses a threat to the productivity of pastures and arable land, but also affects the built environment, both current infrastructure components such as roads and bridges and our historic heritage. Many historic buildings are prone to the ingress of moisture and the concomitant deleterious effects of the moisture on associated fabric. The soluble salts in the ground water pose an even greater threat when they are introduced via capillary action into historic or modern fabric. Associated with the seasonal fluctuations of the high ground water table will be shrinking and swelling of the soil substrate which will affect the stability of the foundations, and may cause differential settlement of parts of a structure. Further, the moisture saturated subsoils underneath structures are prone to liquefaction during earthquake events, amplifying the effects of the ground motion and causing structures to partially subside and to fail. There is an urgent need for town planners and heritage managers to appreciate the potential dangers posed by dryland salinity and rising ground water tables. Mitigative action is required now. Failure to act will result in substantial elements of our built heritage literally crumbling in front of our eyes.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Proactive Cultural Heritage Management: "Advertising" options for Pacific Island Countries Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 81. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Meyenn, Robert J. & Vusoniwailala, Kate (1997) Melanesian Cultural Heritage Management Programme. Programme Proposal. Final Report. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 74. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
  
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Meyenn, Robert J. & Vusoniwailala, Kate (1997) Melanesian Cultural Heritage Management Programme. LOGFRAME Matrices Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 75. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University.
  
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Aspects of Indigenous Cultural Heritage Management in Australia in: Commonwealth of Australia, Joint Committee on Native Title and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Land Fund. Offical Hansard Report for the hearing in Melbourne on 24 October 1997, Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. NT, Pp. 909-917.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Proactive Cultural Heritage Management: "Advertising" options for Pacific Island Countries Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 81. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Meyenn, Robert J. (1997) Cultural Heritage management and Curriculum Development: Some issues facing Melanesian Nations. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report nª 98. Albury, NSW: Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage. ISBN: 1 875758 63 1

The report looks at the relationship between traditional education as practiced under the rules of 'kastom' for thousands of years and the formal school education system imposed by the colonial powers. This tension has significant implications for a nation's cultural identity as well as the management of the cultural heritage which are inextricably intertwined with the way we approach the education of children.
It argues for a multi-tiered curriculum which allows for the localisation of content and thus the fostering of culture and traditions while at the same time ensuring that the national curriculum aims are being met.

 

1996
Look, David W. & Dirk H.R.Spennemann (1996) In a tropical marine climate: Conservation Management of Historic Metals. APT Bulletin 27(1-2), 60.

A severe tropical climate and a lack of maintenance have resulted in huge inventory of World War II (WWII) sites and objects in the Pacific Area (in both US territories and in the new republics of Freely Associated States of Micronesia) in an advanced, accelerated state of deterioration. How can we assist the Micronesians in preserving a brief moment in time when two foreign nations fought a war on their homeland? The commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the WWII has come and gone. Although the war has not been forgotten, the current hard economic situation in the US, Micronesia, and elsewhere has not been the ideal time to secure the preservation of these vulnerable resources. Since we do not have adequate funds to preserve these irreplaceable cultural resources, what can we do to slow the rate of deterioration.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Adaptive re-use of B-24 parts in the Marshall Islands Briefing-The Journal of the Intenational Liberator Club 59, p. 3.

The abundance of military sites and materiel of the Pacific War meant that many places and objects found secondary uses during and especially after the war. The paper reviews the secondary use of parts of B-24 ?Liberator? bomber aircraft. Prime items were aluminium oxygen cylinders which served as cooking pots, but aluminium struts, and even entire propeller baldes also found their use.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) B-24 Liberators on virtual display on the Internet. Briefing-The Journal of the Intenational Liberator Club 56, 22

The abundance of military sites and materiel of the Pacific War meant that many places and objects found secondary uses during and especially after the war. The paper reviews the secondary use of parts of B-24 ?Liberator? bomber aircraft. Prime items were aluminium oxygen cylinders which served as cooking pots, but aluminium struts, and even entire propeller baldes also found their use.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Harris, Kellie (1996) Cultural heritage of Culcairn Shire: some considerations for strategic planning. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 71. Charles Sturt University, The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage: Albury, NSW
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Vusoniwailala, Kate (1995) Melanesian Cultural Cultural Heritage Management Identification Study. Trip Report Nº 1. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 48. Charles Sturt University, Johnstone Centre of Parks, Receation and Heritage: Albury, NSW
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Meyenn, Robert J. (1996) Melanesian Cultural Heritage Management Identification Study. Strategic Issues Document. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 61. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University: Albury, NSW.
  
Spennemann, D.H.R. (1996) "Hundertwasser Wohnen in den Wiesen". Art, Architecture and Heritage in Bad Soden, Germany. A hypermedia resource. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Varia/Hundertwasser/100W_Start.html [Developed as a case study for a student assignment]
Spennemann, D.H.R. (1996) The three lives of St. Matthew's Anglican Church, Kiewa Street, Albury.. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW, Australia.
URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Varia/St.Matthews/SM_Start.html [Developed as a case study for a student assignment]
 

1995
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Physical reminders of the British-Japanese Armament Trade in Micronesia. Journal of the Pacific Society (Tokyo) 18(3), 1-15.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) British Naval Guns in Micronesia. Mariners Mirror 81(3), 343-347.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) The site visibility and site survey bias in cultural resource management. A Preliminary analysis of the 1993 survey reports held by Aboriginal Affairs Victoria. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report 19 Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University

All consultancy reports submitted in 1993 to the Heritage Division of Aboriginal Affairs Victoria were reviewed to assess how the consultants dealt with issues of site visibilty and bias. The results showed that in their present form many of the reports

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1995) Impact of tropical vegetation on historical cultural resources. A photographic case study from the Marshall Islands. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report 18. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University.
 

1994
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) 'Draft Proposals for a Heritage Act (Victoria)'. A submission of formal comment. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University. P.O. Box 789, Albury NSW 2640.
Look, David W. & Dirk H.R.Spennemann (1994) Preparing for the 50th anniversary of Guam Liberation. Metals Conservation Course and Demonstration Project. CRM Bulletin 17(8): 35-36.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) An archaeological survey of the proposed Corowa sewerage augmentation scheme carried out at Corowa, NSW, on behalf of NSW Public Works. Johnstone Centre for Parks Recreation and Heritage Report nª 8. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) The last flight of the 'St. Quentin Quail'. Investigations of the wreckage and history of Consolidated B-24 'Liberator' aircraft #42-41205 off Jab'u Island, Arno Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report No 17- The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1994.
Dirk H.R. Spennemann & David W. Look (1994) Writing Conservation Management Plans. Concepts and Considerations for Conservation Management Plans. In David Look and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (compilers) Conservation Man-agement of Historic Metal in Tropical Environments. Background Notes No 11. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia. and U.S. Depart-ment of the Interior, National Park Service, West-ern Regional Office, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A. [Typeset in pdf form 2004].

 

1993
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) A dictionary of common terms used in the preparation of cultural resource assessments - Preliminary ed. - Albury, NSW.: Charles Sturt University, The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, 1993. 32pp.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Cultural Resources on Mejatto Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Observations during a series of exhumations in January 1993. Case report prepared for the Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office . Pacific Cultural Resources Management Case Reports. Albury, NSW, Australia: Pacific Cultural Resources Management.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) The archaeological manifestation of contemporary Marshallese burial practices. Observations made during a series of exhumations on Mejatto Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Pacific Cultural Resources Management Case Reports. Albury, NSW, Australia: Pacific Cultural Resources Management.
Look, David W. and Dirk H.R. Spennemann, (1993) For Future Use: A Management Conservation Plan for the World War II sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. , Albury, NSW, Australia, and San Francisco, U.S.A.: The Johnstone Centre of Park, Recreation and Heritage and the U.S. National Park Service Western Regional Office.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Marshall Islands approves comprehensive preservation legislation. Journal of Field Archaeology 20(4), 504-505
Look, David W. & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1993) Saving WWII Historic Sites. Metals Conservation Course in the Marshall Islands. Cultural Resource Management Bulletin [U.S. National Park Service] 16 (5), 22-24.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1993) Multicultural Resources Management-a Pacific Perspective. Historic Preservation Forum 7(1), 20-26.
 

1992
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) World War II Sites on Wotje Island. In: David W. Look and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (compilers), 'Conservation of Iron Artefacts in a Tropical Marine Climate .' Workbook for a workshop held at Majuro and Wotje Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands, December 3rd to 10th, 1992. Majuro Atoll: Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office and U.S. National Park Service, Western Regional Office
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) The Cultural Resources of Wotje Atoll. In: David W. Look and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (compilers), 'Conservation of Iron Artefacts in a Tropical Marine Climate .' Workbook for a workshop held at Majuro and Wotje Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands, December 3rd to 10th, 1992. Majuro Atoll: Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office and U.S. National Park Service, Western Regional Office
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Target '96: Using the Past to Navigate the Future. An Assessment of Historic Preservation Needs in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and a Comprehensive Plan of Action for FY 1992/93 to 1996/97. Majuro, Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Cultural Resource Management Plan for Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. 2 Vols. Washington: U.S.Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs. Part I: Managment Plan 543 pp. Part II: Appendices 352 pp.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Predictive Modelling of Settlement Expansion and its implications for Historic Preservation Efforts on Coral Atolls: A case study from Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Paper distributd at : National Park Service Cultural Resources Training Places of Value in the Midst of Change: Evaluation, Treatment and Negotiation in Cultural Resources Management. Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, May 18-22, 1992. Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (comp.) (1992) Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Legislation. A compilation of all applicable laws and regulations. Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands: Historic Preservation Office.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Carmen Bigler and Abacca Anjain (1992) Cultural Resource Management in the Republic of the Marshall Islands 90/91. ISLA - Journal of Micronesian Studies 1(2), 437-444.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Apocalypse now?-the fate of World War II sites on the Central Pacific Islands. Cultural Resources Management [U.S.National Park Service, Washington] 15(2), 1992, 15-16, 22.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Archaeological Site Location Using a Global Positioning System. Journal of Field Archaeology 19(2), 1992, 271-274.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) World War II Remains on Central Pacific Islands: Perceptions of Heritage versus Priorities of Preservation. The Pacific Review 5 (3), 1992, 278-290.
 

1991
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) The Majuro Cultural Garden. A Case for the Establishment of a Demonstration Garden of Traditionally Utilised Cultural Plants on Uliga Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Majuro Atoll: Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office.

This document forms part of the hypertext curriculum vitaeof Dr. Dirk H.R. Spennemann (Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia). If you arrived at this page through a search engine you may wish to call up http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem which will link you to the top of the frame-based CV.