dirk hr spennemann

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Education
(Tertiary & Public)


Publications by Dirk HR Spennemann
 

2007
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. Cornforth, David; & Atkinson, John (2007) A choice of terminals: spatial patterning in computer laboratories. Campuswide Information Systems vol. 24 n? 2, pp.7696.

Previous research of the use of computer laboratories in schools and universities has focussed on educational issues. None of the studies so far have considered matters of situational territoriality and spatial patterning that govern human behaviour.
By assessing the user behaviour in 16 computer laboratories at a regional university in Australia, this paper will examine the spatial patterns of student use of machines in each laboratory to whether there are underlying commonalities. The study found that computers within easy access to doors are disproportionately more used than computer that are further away, irrespective of other ?incentive? such as windows, wall anchoring or security camera positioning. This paper has implications for any division within a university environment responsible for the spatial positioning of computer in a student laboratory.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Atkinson, John, & Cornforth, David (2007) Voting with their Seats: Computer Laboratory Design and the Casual User. Behaviour and Information Technology vol. 26 n? 5, pp. 409 420

Student computer laboratories are provided by my most teaching institutions around the world however what is the most effective layout for such facilities? The login data files from computer laboratories at a regional university in Australia were analysed to determine whether there was a pattern in student seating. In particular it was investigated whether students and academic staff usage was affected by the layout of a computer laboratory and therefore a preference by students in where they were seated. It was found that the layout of the computer laboratories does not affect which computer layout that a student will use. Further it was found that academic staff prefer to use a computer laboratory designed along more traditional lecture room layout when working with first year students. This research will be valuable to institutions designing new computer laboratory facilities.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Atkinson, John, & Cornforth, David (2007) Sessional, weekly and diurnal patterns of computer lab usage by students. Computers & Education vol. 49, n? 3, pp. 726?739.

Most universities have invested in extensive infrastructure in the form on computer laboratories and computer kiosks. However is this investment justified when it is suggested that students work predominantly from home using their own computers? This paper provides an empirical study investigating how students at a regional university multicampus university use computer laboratories. The findings suggest that universities need to reassess the traditional driving force and expectation for extensive oncampus computing facilities as there is a huge underutilisation of these facilities. Instead it is recommended that alternative computing facilities in the form of student centred facilities such as wireless hotspots could be provided.

 

2006
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2006) Who Bears the Burden? Students??? Perceptions of Residential School Attendance in the new Socio-Political Climate of Educational Sec-tor & Work-Place Reform. Report to Charles Sturt University Centre for Enhancing Learning and Teaching. Albury: School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University

Residential schools have traditionally been one of the cornerstones of the distance education calendar. With increasing costs to the institution as well as to the student, the need for residential schools has in-creasingly come under scrutiny. The study reported here surveyed the majority of students attending compulsory residential schools offered by the School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Char-les Sturt University, with the aim of assessing the burden these residential schools pose to the student in economic and social terms. While the average expenditure on residential school attendance ($570) has only minimally increased compared to a decade earlier, many more students are required to take annual leave or leave without pay in order to attend adding on average $780 in lost pay. Many students reported problems when negotiating leave, with one fifth expecting that employers would make it harder to take leave in the coming year. The increasing economic pressures impacting on students make it imperative that staff continually reevaluate the need for residential schools in the subjects they teach

Cornforth, David; Atkinson, John and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Configuration and management of a cluster computing facility in undergraduate student computer laboratories. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol 23, no 1, 15-23.

Many university researchers and postgraduate students require access to computer facilities beyond those offered by desktop machines. Traditionally these are offered either through partnerships to share the cost of supercomputing facilities, or through purpose-built cluster facilities. However, funds are not always available to satisfy either of these options, and university departments are under increasing pressure to obtain the maximum return on investment. In this work we describe the development of a low-cost cluster computing facility. The novel aspect of this work is that the facility was built using existing student computing laboratories. Our success depends on the fact that these laboratories are under utilised during most of the time. These workstations participate in a cluster to supply the needs of researchers, but remain configured as individual workstations, so continue to meet the need of students carrying out work in connection with their undergraduate studies. In this way the university was able maximise return on their investment. In this paper we report the development of the facility, discuss issues that arose, and show how we dealt with them in order to achieve this cost-effective solution.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Daily Internet Usage Patterns in Australia: an Exploration. The Information Society vol. 22 no 2, pp. 101-110.

The developments of the Internet in the past five years have seen this technology become all pervasive in most sectors of society. Increasingly, the Internet has become a communications medium to deliver content for both work/education and entertainment. While research has focussed on the applications of the technology, little has been done to demonstrate how this fits into our daily lives over the run of an average day. Using data drawn from Australian services, this paper provide a new methodology to explore when usage does occur, and to what extent a difference exists between various sectors of the community. It also demonstrates the suitability of human activity patterns and time usage studies to understand how society adopts new technologies.

2005
Atkinson, John, Cornforth, David & Spennemann, Dirk H.R (2005) Redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories into cluster computing facilities. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 22, no 4, p. 201-209.

For reasons of equity of access, universities have established computer laboratories for use by their on-Campus students. However an investigation of the utilisation of the computer laboratories at Charles Sturt University found considerable under utilisation of the facilities. This provides an opportunity to re-divert the processing capacity of some or all of these spare computer resources into other projects. Current research indicates the benefits of linking individual desktop computer systems into a cluster computing facility. The paper concludes by outlining the most likely strategy for the development of a distributed High Performance Computing Facility at very little additional cost.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2005) Just how international is my website? Estimating the Reach through Analysis of Hourly Demand. First Monday. Vol. 10 no 12, http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_12/spennemann/index.html

The increased commercialisation of internet domain sales created the unanticipated side effect that domain extensions no longer signify the residence of the domain user. As a result, the analysis of the domain attributes in the web access logs no longer provides accurate information on the origin of the users and thus of the geographical $)A!.reach!/ of a given site. This paper provides an alternative method to assess the geographical !.reach!/ by calculating the average demand for web pages in hourly intervals originating from each time zone. The resulting analysis tool, which relates to Greenwich Mean Time, is location independent and can be applied to websites world wide.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Atkinson, John & Cornforth, David (2005) One reality of the Digital Divide: An exploration of individual computer lab usage at a regional university in Australia. In: Dirk H.R. Spennemann & Leslie Burr (eds), Good Practice in Practice. Proceedings of the Student Experience Conference 5-7th September '05. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Charles Sturt University. Pp. 71-81.

Studies have shown the presence of a digital divide in the community relating to computer access. Universities, eager to embrace the benefits of digital technology, rolled out on-line environments that provided wide-spread benefits, but also potential disadvantages to individuals who were less well off. To mitigate any disadvantages derived from access issues, universities moved to provide free access to computer laboratories. But as IT has become more widespread, the question arose whether that still holds true and whether such provision is still necessary. This study looks at the computer lab use at a regional university in Australia.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. , & Burr, Leslie (2005) Good Practice in Practice: The Student Experience. In: Dirk H.R. Spennemann & Leslie Burr (eds), Good Practice in Practice. Proceedings of the Student Experience Conference 5-7th September '05. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Charles Sturt University. Pp. 1-3.
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2005) A Multi-Disciplined Community of Scholars. A Johnstone Centre Bibliography 1987-2004. Institute of Land, Water and Society Report no 6. Albury, N.S.W.: Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University
 

2004
Burr, Leslie & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2004) Patterns of user behavior in University on-line forums. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning vol. 1, n? 10, October 2004, pp. 11?18.

Online forums have become the backbone of most computer-supported distance education programs. While analyses have been carried out assessing the content of a limited number of such forums, there is little work done on how and when students make use of such facilities. There is much talk about 24/7, anytime, anywhere availability?but do students make use of this extended envelope, or is this just education rhetoric? This paper presents the outcomes of a large-scale study examining the usage of over 2000 forums for a period of four years.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2004) An Empirical Analysis of the On-Campus Presence of Students at Charles Sturt University in 2003. Bathurst, NSW: Centre for Enhancing Learning and Teaching, Charles Sturt University.

This study analyses the on-campus presence of students at three major campuses of Charles Sturt University (New South Wales) in the autumn and spring semesters of 2003. It demonstrates that student load is neither uniform over across the days of the week, nor uniform over the duration of a work day. Low load periods are identified that can be used facility management, while the identification of high load periods may provide opportunities for a retargeting of resources to meet the demand. The load curves presented in this study can be used for allied studies and analysis of student use of computing laboratories, libraries and so forth.

 

2003
Spennemann, Dirk H. R. and Atkinson, John S. (2003) A longitudinal study of the uptake of and confidence in using e-mail among parks management students. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 20 n? 2, pp. 55–66.

This paper details a longitudinal study into the e-mail habits of first year students at Charles Sturt University. This study is part of ongoing research investigating the factors and barriers that can in-fluence the successfully adoption of technology into the learning environment. The findings from this study illustrate that e-mail applications are very popular in terms of both usage as well as the high level of confidence that students exhibit. The survey identified two main areas that need to be addressed, namely the disadvantage of rural students in accessing e-mail and secondly that male students tend not to be as frequent users of e-mail compared to their female counterparts.

 

2002
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Atkinson, John S. (2002) A longitudinal study of Data Management Practices among Parks Management Students. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 19 n? 4, pp. 149–155.

This paper details a longitudinal study into the data management practices of first year students at Charles Sturt University. This study is part of ongoing research investigating the factors and barriers that can influence the successfully adoption of technology into the learning environment. The findings suggest that students are exhibiting poor data management skills and lack the understanding to recover from data loss situations.

 

2000
Howard, Jonathon, Mitchell, David, Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Webster-Mannison, Marci (2000) Is today shaping tommorrow for tertiary education in Australia? a comparison of policy and practice. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 1(1), pp. 83-96.

The Commonwealth Government of Australia appears to be moving to environmental education for a sustainable future. Using the new environmental campus of Charles Sturt University in New South Wales as a case study, this paper outlines how one Australian university is providing sustainability in higher education by integrating its designs, operations and teaching practices. In doing so, it shows recent initiatives in the higher education sector and highlights the gap between the what Commonwealth government regards could enhance the national effort and what is happening on the ground.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]

Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a Collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]

 

1999
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Welcome to the global classroom! Teaching in the 3rd millennium. Education at a Distance 13(1), pp. 11-19.

The paper discusses the educational concepts and structural implications for the university sector, posed by the on-line teaching environment. It provides examples and suggests scenarios as to what future universities may look like

 

1998
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) On-line study packages for distance education. Some considerations of conceptual parameters. American Journal of education by distance 12(8)
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Montfort, Lesley (1998) Study duration of Post-graduate distance education degrees offered by Australian Universities. Education at a Distance 12(9), pp. 16-19.

Paper reviewing the average duration of graduate diplomas and masters by coursework degrees at Australian Universities. The study found that past-time studied graduate diplomas were completed were completed faster than the expected time frame of cmpletion while masters degree took longer than scheduled. Implications of this are discussed.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) Education, National Strategic Reserves and the Australia's budget deficit. Social Alternatives 17(1), pp. 44-45.
 

1997
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Proactive Cultural Heritage Management: "Advertising" options for Pacific Island Countries Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report Vol. 81. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Meyenn, Robert J. (1997) Cultural Heritage management and Curriculum Development: Some issues facing Melanesian Nations. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report nª 98. Albury, NSW: Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage. ISBN: 1 875758 63 1

The report looks at the relationship between traditional education as practiced under the rules of 'kastom' for thousands of years and the formal school education system imposed by the colonial powers. This tension has significant implications for a nation's cultural identity as well as the management of the cultural heritage which are inextricably intertwined with the way we approach the education of children.
It argues for a multi-tiered curriculum which allows for the localisation of content and thus the fostering of culture and traditions while at the same time ensuring that the national curriculum aims are being met.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Montfort, Lesley & Fry, Grey (1997) Library use as a generic skill Wagga Wagga: Charles Sturt University, Open Learning Institute. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 22, pp. 35-39. URL: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/OLI/pubs/occpap/no22/papers22.pdf (Adobe Acrobat file)

The School of Environmental and Information Sciences has identified a series of generic skills graduates should possess upon entering the workplace. These skills are not taught separately, but embedded into different subjects. We will review the effectiveness of such skill transfer based on experiences gained in Spring 1996 from the perspective of lecturers and library staff

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Montfort, Lesley & Fry, Grey (1997) Library use as a generic skill in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 26.
Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience in: Michael Wyatt (ed.), Information on-line and on disk '97. Proceedings of the 8th Australasian Information Online and on Disc Conference, Sydney: Information Science Section, Australian Library and Information Association. Pp. 213-230.

The paper discusses the developments of on-line teaching at Charles Sturt University and raises som conceptual parameters that need to be addressed if the system shall be successful

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do techno-sceptics use on-campus e-mail?. Campus-Wide Information Systems 14(2), pp. 46-53.

Electronic mail has become all pervasive at CSU. Most of our inter-office communication is conducted via this medium or via WWW announcements. But do students see it the same way? Response times to messages sent to all students enrolled in a subject were measured, which show that some students took more than 80 days to read their mail. The total number of students reading their mail dropped near the end of term, at a time when much use was made of the medium. Little correlation was observed between the frequency of e-mail reading and the final student grade

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) How often do students actually read their e-mail?. American Association for Higher Education AAHESGIT LISTSERV Vol. 17.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW: Open Learning Institute,Charles Sturt University. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, pp. 29-40. URL: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/OLI/pubs/occpap/no21/spenner/index.htm
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do students read their e-mail? in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 23.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Can tutorials modify perceptions? in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 23. in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, 23.

To provide students with the skills and knowledge to understand concepts in cultural resource management and to be able to respond critically to current topics, tutorials were run with two students presenting and arguing diametrically opposed points of view. The attitude of the student population (n=150) to the discussion topics, polled at the beginning of the term, was polled at intervals during the term (one week after the relevant tutorial, after return from mid-session break, end of term). Major shifts in opinion could be observed after the tutorials with small readjustments as time progressed. Most significantly the numbers of 'don't know' answers dropped showing that the tutorial format facilitated idea formation and opinion building. Differences between personalised and anonymous questionnaires could be observed.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Back-up habits of students in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching.
 

1996
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) General Knowledge in Heritage and History. Internal Student population 1996 School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report Vol. 6. School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University: Albury, NSW.
URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Publications/Attitudes96/GeneralKnowledge.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Students' commitments to attend residential schools: who bears the burden? Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 19, 15-24.

The participants of the 1995 residential school for subject PKM 266 were asked to furnish information on the costs incurred in attending the residential school. The key findings are that the costs of the residential school, travel and accommodation, are borne by the student. While employers pay for travel in a minority of cases, they tend to support the student by providing them with special leave

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Atkinson, John S. (1996) Electronic ephemera. A threat to structured on-line education. in: Roger Debreceny and Allan Ellis (eds), AusWeb96 Landscaping the Web, Southern Cross University: Lismore. Pp. 525-528.

The World Wide Web (WWW) has created a low-cost publishing medium which permits to project a virtual presence well beyond the geographic location of the publisher. Because of the anarchic nature of the WWW and because literally everybody with access to a modem and an internet account can publish there is level of unruliness about network publishing. While laudable as an example of freedom of expression, it poses problems for those, who wish to refer to these publications as examples and readings as part of electronic distance education packages. The ephemeral nature of many documents published on the WWW is diametrically opposed to the very nature of scholarship and academic education. The issue of permanency of documents needs to be addressed if the full potential of the WWW as a publish tool shall be realised

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Current Attitudes of Parks Management and Ecotourism Students I: Gender Issues School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report Vol. 5. School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University: Albury, NSW. br> URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Publications/Attitudes96/Attitudes96_1_Gender.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Gender imbalances in computer access among environmental science students. Journal of Instructional Science and Technology Vol. 1(2). URL: http://www.usq.edu.au/electpub/e-jist/spenne.htm

A survey of environmental science students at Charles Sturt University studying both in internal and external mode, has shown that the low socio-economic standing of women is carried through to the ownership and access to computers. The observed differences are very severe, clearly setting the women students at a disadvantage. These data seem to confirm the fear that the current economic imbalances between the genders will translate into imbalances in information access and information manipulation, thus resulting in ongoing, or even exacerbated inequity

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Atkinson, John S. (1996) Electronic ephemera. A threat to structured on-line education. in: Roger Debreceny and Allan Ellis (eds), AusWeb96 Landscaping the Web, Southern Cross University: Lismore. Pp. 525-528.

The World Wide Web (WWW) has created a low-cost publishing medium which permits to project a virtual presence well beyond the geographic location of the publisher. Because of the anarchic nature of the WWW and because literally everybody with access to a modem and an internet account can publish there is level of unruliness about network publishing. While laudable as an example of freedom of expression, it poses problems for those, who wish to refer to these publications as examples and readings as part of electronic distance education packages. The ephemeral nature of many documents published on the WWW is diametrically opposed to the very nature of scholarship and academic education. The issue of permanency of documents needs to be addressed if the full potential of the WWW as a publish tool shall be realised

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Birckhead, Jim, Green, David G. & Atkinson, John S. (1996) "The electronic colonisation of the Pacific'. Computer Mediated Communications Magazine Vol. 3(2). http://www.december.com/cmc/mag/1996/feb/spen.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) The Information superhighway in the Pacific. Pacific Servers in April 1996. URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Pacific/PacHwy0496.html

This paper reviews the state of WWW servers in the Pacific Islands countries at the beginning of April 1996. While the number of servers has increased, the full potential or publishing has not yet been realised.In addition, a number new commercial sites have opened in the USA, which set new standards for presentation, but exhibit selective and slanted information. The predicted gap between the Pacific Islands and the overseas servers and the information published therein will continue to widen unless concerted action is taken by the Pacific Island countries

 

1995
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Lesley Montfort (1995) Graduate Diploma's and Coursework Masters offered by Australian Universities in Distance Education mode A descriptive analysis of various parameters. School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report No 1. Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1995.
Spennemann ,Dirk H.R. (1995) Skimming the bright surface, or sounding the murky depths? Teaching to learn and learning to teach Cultural Resource Management face-to-face and at a distance. In:Robert J.Meyenn , Juith Parker & Bruce Pennay(eds.) Charles Sturt University Tertiary Teaching Colloquium Papers 1994. Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW. PP. 44-59
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) On-line study packages for distance education. Some considerations of conceptual parameters. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Education, Open Learning Institute, Charles Sturt University 18, 1-18.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Lesley Montfort (1995) Study duration of post-graduate distance education degrees offered by Australian Universities. Occasional Papers in Distance Education, Open Learning Institute, Charles Sturt University 18, 27-32.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Students' commitments to attend residential schools: who bears the burden? School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report nª 2, School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW. URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/DSPENNEM/TEACHING/ResSch95/ResSch95_1.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Students' commitments to attend residential schools: the desireability of residential schools. School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report nª 3, School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW. URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/DSPENNEM/TEACHING/ResSch95/ResSch95_2.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Gender imbalances in computer access among environmental science students School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW. URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Publications/Gender_SEIS_95/Gender_SEIS_95.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Anthony P. Steinke (1995) Computerised Interactive Cultural Resources Inventory Training. A computer program for survey training at Charles Sturt University. Paper read at the AUUG'95 & Asia-Pacific World-Wide Web'95 Conference & Exhibition. Darling Harbour 19-22 September 1995. [URL http://life.csu.edu.au/ ~dspennem/ Publications/WWW_CONF/CICRIT.html]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Anthony P.Steinke (1995) Computerised Interactive Cultural Resources Inventory Training. A computer program for survey training at Charles Sturt University. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report nª 32. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Lesley Montfort (1995) Graduate Diploma's and Coursework Masters offered by Australian Universities in Distance Education mode A descriptive analysis of various parameters. School of Environmental and Information Sciences Report No 1. Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1995.

This document forms part of the hypertext curriculum vitaeof Dr. Dirk H.R. Spennemann (Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia). If you arrived at this page through a search engine you may wish to call up http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem which will link you to the top of the frame-based CV.