dirk hr spennemann

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Information Technology
Publications by Dirk HR Spennemann
 

in press
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (in press) Daily Internet Usage Patterns in Australia: an Exploration. The Information Society accepted

The developments of the Internet in the past five years have seen this technology become all pervasive in most sectors of society. Increasingly, the Internet has become a communications medium to deliver content for both work/education and entertainment. While research has focussed on the applications of the technology, little has been done to demonstrate how this fits into our daily lives over the run of an average day. Using data drawn from Australian services, this paper provide a new methodology to explore when usage does occur, and to what extent a difference exists between various sectors of the community. It also demonstrates the suitability of human activity patterns and time usage studies to understand how society adopts new technologies..

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Atkinson, John, & Cornforth, David (in press) Sessional, weekly and diurnal patterns of computer lab usage by students. Computers & Education accepted

Most universities have invested in extensive infrastructure in the form on computer laboratories and computer kiosks. However is this investment justified when it is suggested that students work predominantly from home using their own computers? This paper provides an empirical study investigating how students at a regional university multi-campus university use computer laboratories. The findings suggest that universities need to reassess the traditional driving force and expectation for extensive on-campus computing facilities as there is a huge underutilisation of these facilities. Instead it is recommended that alternative computing facilities in the form of student centred facilities such as wireless hotspots could be provided..

 

2006
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Learning and Teaching 24/7: Daily Internet Usage Patterns at Nine Australian Universities. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 24 no. 1, pp. 27?44

The developments of the Internet in the past five years have seen this technology become all pervasive in most sectors of society. Academia was an early adopter, pushing the development in a wide range of aspects. There is substantial rhetoric that the 24/7 availability of the Internet, ie every hour of every day, allows students and academics to study and research independent of normal working hours. But does reality bear out the rhetoric? This paper looks at the usage of the Internet by students, academics and university administrators as part of their normal working day. It investigates whether access to computer facilities and the mode of study have any influence, or whether other factors need to be considered when providing services

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) A longitudinal study of the uptake of and confidence in using WWW browsers among parks management students. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning vol. 3, no. 1, January 2006, pp. 41?51

The 1990$)A!/s saw an unprecedented growth of the WWW. It was assumed that students would correspondingly take up the associated technologies. Between 1995 and 2000 a longitudinal study was carried out to test the usage and confidence of students using WWW browsers in a university environment. The results show that use of the WWW has increased to near saturation levels although a bias is evident between male and female users. A correlation was established between the frequency of use and confidence with which WWW browsers are being used
[PDF document, Full text]

 
 

2005
Atkinson, John, Cornforth, David & Spennemann, Dirk H.R (2005) Redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories into cluster computing facilities. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 22, n? 4, p. 201-209.

For reasons of equity of access, universities have established computer laboratories for use by their on-Campus students. However an investigation of the utilisation of the computer laboratories at Charles Sturt University found considerable under utilisation of the facilities. This provides an opportunity to re-divert the processing capacity of some or all of these spare computer resources into other projects. Current research indicates the benefits of linking individual desktop computer systems into a cluster computing facility. The paper concludes by outlining the most likely strategy for the development of a distributed High Performance Computing Facility at very little additional cost.

Spennemann, Dirk HR, Atkinson, John & Cornforth, David (2005) One reality of the Digital Divide: An exploration of individual computer lab usage at a regional university in Australia.. In: Dirk HR Spennemann & Leslie Burr (eds), Good Practice in Practice. Proceedings of the Student Experience Conference 5-7th September '05. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Charles Sturt University. Pp. 71-81.

Studies have shown the presence of a digital divide in the community relating to computer access. Universities, eager to embrace the benefits of digital technology, rolled out on-line environments that provided wide-spread benefits, but also potential disadvantages to individuals who were less well off. To mitigate any disadvantages derived from access issues, universities moved to provide free access to computer laboratories. But as IT has become more widespread, the question arose whether that still holds true and whether such provision is still necessary. This study looks at the computer lab use at a regional university in Australia. .

 

2004
Burr, Leslie & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2004) Patterns of user behavior in University on-line forums. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning vol. 1, n? 10, October 2004, pp. 11?18.

Online forums have become the backbone of most computer-supported distance education programs. While analyses have been carried out assessing the content of a limited number of such forums, there is little work done on how and when students make use of such facilities. There is much talk about 24/7, anytime, anywhere availability?but do students make use of this extended envelope, or is this just education rhetoric? This paper presents the outcomes of a large-scale study examining the usage of over 2000 forums for a period of four years.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2004) Digital Divides in the Pacific Islands. IT & Society vol. 1 no 7, pp. 46-65.
http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/itandsociety/v01i07/v01i07a04.pdf

Pacific Island countries face serious challenges in the delivery of information services: a limited economic base, relative isolation of the countries, geographic dispersal of their population on small islands within each country, compounded by cultural and linguistic diversity. Not surprising, much of this translates into digital divides. This paper reviews the nature of the digital divides that exist in the Pacific region, considering divides within countries, between the countries, and between the Pacific region and the rest of the world

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Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2004) A Digital library and archive about the Marshall Islands: experiences and challenges. Australian Library Journal vol. 53, n? 3, pp. 235-256

The development of the World Wide Web has allowed for the establishment of on-line information warehouses, either in centralised or distributed form. A digital library and archive about the Marshall Islands, a small Pacific Island nation comprises of primary and secondary sources which are often scattered and, especially for remote communities, had to come by. This paper discusses the development, current use and future of the library, looking at users and subject areas of demand.

O'Neill, Jon & Spennemann, Dirk H. R. (2004) Design and Application of On-Line Questionnaires: experiences from Micronesia. The Micronesian Journal of the Human?ities and Social Sciences. Vol. 3 n? 1-2, pp. 64-80

The administration of mail-out questionnaires in Micronesia is plagued by the tyrannies of spatial and cultural distances: Micronesians live dispersed throughout the islands of Micronesia and various locales in the island and mainland USA. They have also been described as people preferring oral exchanges over written communication. While the administration of paper-based questionnaires is challenging, observations of a digital divide in the Pacific make the use of on-line questionnaires a daunting proposition. This paper describes the development of the survey instrument and how it was received by the population surveyed. Advantages and disadvantages of the methodology are discussed.

 

2003
 

2002
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Atkinson, John S. (2002) A longitudinal study of Data Management Practices among Parks Management Students. Campus-Wide Information Systems vol. 19 n? 4, pp. 149–155.

This paper details a longitudinal study into the data management practices of first year students at Charles Sturt University. This study is part of ongoing research investigating the factors and barriers that can influence the successfully adoption of technology into the learning environment. The findings suggest that students are exhibiting poor data management skills and lack the understanding to recover from data loss situations.

 
 

2000
Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). Meeting local needs? a study of a communication project established in the Pacific Islands. Public Administration and Development 20(3), pp. 185-195.

The Internet has become a major source and vehicle for technological transfer and project development during the 1990s. Three Pacific Island countries - Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu - were connected through Pactok, an inexpensive computer mediated communications (CMC) system originally developed for non-government organisations through the Pacific Sustainable Development Networking Project (PSDNP). The PSDNP was established by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1993 and funded by UNDP until December 1996.
Content analysis of the Project Document indicated that although the PSDNP aimed to improve access by these countries to scientific and technical information, an important underlying theme was to ensure these Pacific Island countries were connected to the Internet. It also appeared that the agency was keen for organisations in these countries to increase access to international information, with little regard for local and regional sources.
Subsequent analysis of Pactok sites early in 1997 showed that the PSDNP had encouraged the project?s primary stakeholders - regional organisations and NGOs - to join Pactok. However, international agencies such as UNDP and other foreign assistance agencies also have access to Pactok, and so be able to disseminate agency ideologies, objectives and priorities directly to users in Pacific Island countries.

Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000). Getting wired: a Pacific Islands study. Australian Journal of Communications 27(3), pp. 91-105.

The paper explores why people in the Pacific Islands have connected to the Internet. It is based on theories concerning computer mediated communication and the debate between technological and social determinists, and an intermediate approach, in developing and disseminating new technology.
Quantitative and qualitative research was carried out during 1997 in five Pacific Island countries - Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu - which were connected to the Pactok computer communications system. Pactok connections and support in Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu were funded through the Pacific Sustainable Development Networking Project (PSDNP) during 1994 and 1995, while it was established by institutions with little funding suport in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.
Quantitative studies of Pactok sites early in 1997 showed that the PSDNP encouraged regional organisations and non-government organisations to join Pactok., as well as national and international aid agencies. Later surveys, distributed by electronic mail and air mail, indicated that over half of the users were not Pacific Islanders, and that they tended to look outside the region for information sought through Pactok. They also highlighted the predominance of the English language on the Internet.
Lastly, the surveys highlighted major reasons for organisations joining Pactok: to save on telecommunication costs and to contact other organisations outside the region. This was contrary to the objectives of the PSDNP, which sought to connect users to the Internet to help them access technical and economic information for sustainable development.

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]

Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience. in Ellan Jenkinson (ed.), Research in Distance Education: a Collection of the Literature. The South Carolina Sustainable Universities Initiative. Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina, 2000. [CD-ROM]

 

1999

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1999) Welcome to the global classroom! Teaching in the 3rd millennium. Education at a Distance 13(1), pp. 11-19.

The paper discusses the educational concepts and structural implications for the university sector, posed by the on-line teaching environment. It provides examples and suggests scenarios as to what future universities may look like

 
 

1998
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1998) On-line study packages for distance education. Some considerations of conceptual parameters. American Journal of education by distance 12(8)
 

1997
Ward, Wesley & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Why are the Pacific Islands connecting to the Internet? [Abstract] in: Tony Bennett (ed.), Cultural Cross Roads. Ownership, Access, Identity. Abstracts for the Conference 24-26 November 1997., Brisbane: Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy, Griffith University. Pp. 94.
Atkinson, John S., Green, David G. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Delivering on-line education via the World Wide Web: the Charles Sturt University experience in: Michael Wyatt (ed.), Information on-line and on disk '97. Proceedings of the 8th Australasian Information Online and on Disc Conference, Sydney: Information Science Section, Australian Library and Information Association. Pp. 213-230.

The paper discusses the developments of on-line teaching at Charles Sturt University and raises som conceptual parameters that need to be addressed if the system shall be successful

 
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do techno-sceptics use on-campus e-mail?. Campus-Wide Information Systems 14(2), pp. 46-53.

Electronic mail has become all pervasive at CSU. Most of our inter-office communication is conducted via this medium or via WWW announcements. But do students see it the same way? Response times to messages sent to all students enrolled in a subject were measured, which show that some students took more than 80 days to read their mail. The total number of students reading their mail dropped near the end of term, at a time when much use was made of the medium. Little correlation was observed between the frequency of e-mail reading and the final student grade

 

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) How often do students actually read their e-mail?. American Association for Higher Education AAHESGIT LISTSERV Vol. 17.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Use of electronic mail among Park Management students at Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW: Open Learning Institute,Charles Sturt University. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, pp. 29-40. URL: http://www.csu.edu.au/division/OLI/pubs/occpap/no21/spenner/index.htm
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Do students read their e-mail? in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning. Charles Sturt University 21, p. 23.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1997) Back-up habits of students in: Poster paper presented at CELT Learning and Teaching Forum " Re-Examining Learning and Teaching at CSU " 11--12 February 1997, Wagga Wagga: Centre for Enhancement of Learning and Teaching.
 

1996
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Atkinson, John S. (1996) Electronic ephemera. A threat to structured on-line education. in: Roger Debreceny and Allan Ellis (eds), AusWeb96 Landscaping the Web, Southern Cross University: Lismore. Pp. 525-528.

The World Wide Web (WWW) has created a low-cost publishing medium which permits to project a virtual presence well beyond the geographic location of the publisher. Because of the anarchic nature of the WWW and because literally everybody with access to a modem and an internet account can publish there is level of unruliness about network publishing. While laudable as an example of freedom of expression, it poses problems for those, who wish to refer to these publications as examples and readings as part of electronic distance education packages. The ephemeral nature of many documents published on the WWW is diametrically opposed to the very nature of scholarship and academic education. The issue of permanency of documents needs to be addressed if the full potential of the WWW as a publish tool shall be realised

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Gender imbalances in computer access among environmental science students. Journal of Instructional Science and Technology Vol. 1(2). URL: http://www.usq.edu.au/electpub/e-jist/spenne.htm

A survey of environmental science students at Charles Sturt University studying both in internal and external mode, has shown that the low socio-economic standing of women is carried through to the ownership and access to computers. The observed differences are very severe, clearly setting the women students at a disadvantage. These data seem to confirm the fear that the current economic imbalances between the genders will translate into imbalances in information access and information manipulation, thus resulting in ongoing, or even exacerbated inequity

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Atkinson, John S. (1996) Electronic ephemera. A threat to structured on-line education. in: Roger Debreceny and Allan Ellis (eds), AusWeb96 Landscaping the Web, Southern Cross University: Lismore. Pp. 525-528.

The World Wide Web (WWW) has created a low-cost publishing medium which permits to project a virtual presence well beyond the geographic location of the publisher. Because of the anarchic nature of the WWW and because literally everybody with access to a modem and an internet account can publish there is level of unruliness about network publishing. While laudable as an example of freedom of expression, it poses problems for those, who wish to refer to these publications as examples and readings as part of electronic distance education packages. The ephemeral nature of many documents published on the WWW is diametrically opposed to the very nature of scholarship and academic education. The issue of permanency of documents needs to be addressed if the full potential of the WWW as a publish tool shall be realised

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Birckhead, Jim, Green, David G. & Atkinson, John S. (1996) "The electronic colonisation of the Pacific'. Computer Mediated Communications Magazine Vol. 3(2). http://www.december.com/cmc/mag/1996/feb/spen.html

The recent developments of server-based technology have seen the Internet become more and more pervasive. The "information superhighway" or "infobahn" has been touted far and wide as heralding a new age. Certainly the World Wide Web offers a wide range of options for communication and for the exchange of information. But what does this mean for the indigenous cultures in the microstates of the Pacific? There is a need to consider the sorts of impact the technological developments may have in order to sensitize the users and developers of the Web to these issues and to explore avenues to mitigate negative impacts.
Traditional views of communication might take a value-neutral stance to technology. However, while modern technologies empower, economic inequalities restrict access. Moreever, the nature of web communication isn't all that egalitarian, which raises the question of whether the Web brings enablement or exploitation, with the Webmasters as sorcerer's apprentices.
In the end, we raise questions of where we may go from here--the current Web is set to divorce the indigenous cultures from control of their own cultural material.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) The Information superhighway in the Pacific. Pacific Servers in April 1996. URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Pacific/PacHwy0496.html

This paper reviews the state of WWW servers in the Pacific Islands countries at the beginning of April 1996. While the number of servers has increased, the full potential or publishing has not yet been realised.In addition, a number new commercial sites have opened in the USA, which set new standards for presentation, but exhibit selective and slanted information. The predicted gap between the Pacific Islands and the overseas servers and the information published therein will continue to widen unless concerted action is taken by the Pacific Island countries

 

1995
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) On-line study packages for distance education. Some considerations of conceptual parameters. Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Education, Open Learning Institute, Charles Sturt University 18, 1-18.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Gender imbalances in computer access among environmental science students School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW. URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Publications/Gender_SEIS_95/Gender_SEIS_95.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Anthony P. Steinke (1995) Computerised Interactive Cultural Resources Inventory Training. A computer program for survey training at Charles Sturt University. Paper read at the AUUG'95 & Asia-Pacific World-Wide Web'95 Conference & Exhibition. Darling Harbour 19-22 September 1995. [URL http://life.csu.edu.au/ ~dspennem/ Publications/WWW_CONF/CICRIT.html]
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Anthony P.Steinke (1995) Computerised Interactive Cultural Resources Inventory Training. A computer program for survey training at Charles Sturt University. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report nª 32. The Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995)Guide to referencing on-line material. Johnstone Centre of Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia. Document URL: http://life.csu.edu.au/~dspennem/Publications/WWW_Publishing/Referencing.html
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Standardised navigation buttons: structuring the chaos in on-line delivered subjects. Paper presented at: "Designing on-line delivered subjects at Charles Sturt University. Workshop 1: Defining minimum design standards". 11 September 1995 . Charles Sturt University, Albury. Document URL: http://life.csu.edu.au//standards/Button_Paper/ DHRS_Button_Paper.html


This document forms part of the hypertext curriculum vitaeof Dr. Dirk H.R. Spennemann (Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia). If you arrived at this page through a search engine you may wish to call up http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem which will link you to the top of the frame-based CV.