dirk hr spennemann

Floating CSS Menu Css3Menu.com

 
Cultural Tourism
Publications by Dirk HR Spennemann
 

2008
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Black, Rosemary (2008) Chasing the 'fat' Ñ chasing a ÔfadÕ? The waxing and waning of tourism and tourism-related courses in Australian higher education. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education vol. 7 n¼ 1. www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/hlst/documents/johlste/vol7no1/penneman.pdf

This paper discusses the development of tourism and ecotourism degrees in Australia in relation to Commonwealth government higher education policies. The deregulation of the higher education sector and the national competition policy, combined with decreases in government funding has resulted in increased competition for niche market degrees like ecotourism . The oversupply of study places has led to quick economic returns, but ultimately saturated the market and the decline and subsequent abolition of many degrees. Based on data gained from various Australian tertiary admission centres this paper argues that the increased competition for students between institutions is not in the national interest.

 

2007
Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Clancy, Laura and Thwaites, Rik (2007) An Exploration of the Public Face of Indigenous Cultural Tourism in the Australian Media. Journal of Vacation Marketing vol. 13, n¼ 3, pp. 253273.

While there is considerable interest in Indigenous Cultural Tourism (ICT) in southeastern Australia the extent to the public is actually exposed to information on ICT products remained unknown. To assess the frequency of information provided, a range of Australian newspapers, magazines and television shows was examined for ICT content. Covering the period 200304, the study found that Australian tourism products were well covered with on average one item per issue/show. On the other hand, ICT products figured only once in every 25 newspaper issues and once in every 1314 magazine issues television shows. Compounding that low representation, the study found that ICT products located in the Northern Territory dominate the media coverage at the expense of local and instate products. The study concludes that current approaches are not working and that the industry should engage in the strategic hosting of visiting journalist programs and media familiarisation events

 

2006
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) Orbital, Lunar and Interplanetary Tourism: Opportunities for Different Perspectives in Star Tourism. In: Proceedings of International Initiative in Defence of the Quality of the Night Skies as MankindÕs Scientific, Cultural and Environmental Right to observe the Stars. La Palma (Tenerife). April 1920, 2007. Tenerife: Instituto de Astrof’sica de Canarias. Pp. 163175.

By necessity, current star tourism is an outward looking, Earthbound and geocentric opportunity with the observerÕs window to the skies constrained by his/her location. The emergent area of space tourism offers to remove such constraints. Moreover, as it visually and experientially places Earth into the context of other planets, space tourism will provide the tourist with a literally different perspective. .

While the proposed orbital (mass) tourism will provide a brief orbital experience, it is still largely focused on weightlessness and the opportunity of seeing Earth from orbit. Despite this, it will offer the tourist brief opportunities for viewing stars from a different point of view. True Space Tourism, be it 'real' (through tourists in space) or virtual (via pay-pe-rdrive remote controlled rovers), moves from a geocentric opportunity spectrum to one that provides views of Earth in space as part of a suite of offerings that encompasses views of planets and stars wholly unencumbered by atmospheric disturbances that plague an observer on Earth, and also unencumbered by constraints of the spatial positioning of the observer in relation to the sector of the universe viewed (as the viewing platform either orbits or is geostationary-depending on design intent). Space Tourism will, eventually, also provide access to the lunar and planetary surfaces (eg Mars) providing additional perspectives.
This paper reviews various proposed scenarios of orbital, lunar and interplanetary tourism and examines the opportunity spectra each these provide for star tourism.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2007) The Opportunities for Star Tourism as a Motivation for Space Tourism. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. Vol. 60, n¼ 11, pp 414418.

By necessity, current star tourism is an outward looking, Earthbound and geocentric opportunity with the observer's window to the skies constrained by his/her location. The emergent area of space tourism offers to remove such constraints. Moreover, as it visually and experientially places Earth into the context of other planets, space tourism will provide the tourist with a literally different perspective. While the selling point of suborbital tourism is still largely focused on weightlessness and the opportunity of seeing Earth from orbit, it will also offer the tourist brief opportunities for viewing stars from a different point of view. Orbital, lunar and planetary tourism, be it 'real' (through tourists in space) or virtual (via payperdrive remote controlled rovers), moves from a geocentric opportunity spectrum to one that provides views of Earth in space as part of a suite of offerings that encompasses views of planets and stars wholly unencumbered by atmospheric disturbances, and also unencumbered by constraints of the spatial positioning of the observer in relation to the sector of the universe viewed. This paper reviews various proposed scenarios of orbital, lunar and interplanetary tourism and examines the opportunity spectra each these provide for star tourism.

 

2006
Sayers, Elizabeth and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Provision of information on Cultural Attractions to Japanese Tourists in the CNMI. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 411-428

If cultural heritage tourism in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands shall succeed as a viable entity, visitors need to be aware of the cultural and historic attractions available to them. This paper examines the sources from which Japanese tourists obtained the required information. It demonstrates that printed matter, especially guidebooks, feature prominently, but also that much of the information about cultural and historic attractions is obtained after arrival. An examination of a series of magazines provided free-of-charge to tourists showed that cultural and historic attractions were only rarely included in the coverage
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Sayers, Elizabeth and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) The Role of Cultural Attractions in the Motivations and Awareness Spectrum of Japanese Tourists in the CNMI. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 373-385

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands is being actively promoted as a destination to the Japanese market. In addition to 'sun and surf', the Northern Mariana Islands have a multi-layered cultural heritage to offer to the interested tourist. This paper explores whether these cultural sites play a role in the motivations of Japanese tourists to visit the CNMI and whether the tourists have an awareness of CNMI heritage at the time of their departure. The findings have substantive implications on cultural heritage policy if the CNMI wishes to engage the visitor community at large in the appreciation of its heritage
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Sayers, Elizabeth and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Cultural heritage attractions in the CNMI: Visitor Satisfaction and Experiences of Japanese Tourists. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 398-410

With over 80% market share, the Japanese dominate the tourist market in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. While the Northern Mariana Islands have a multi-layered cultural heritage to offer to the visitor, it is a challenge to interest the Japanese cohort, which is focussed on 'sun and surf.' This paper examines the extent to which Japanese tourists experienced the cultural and historical attributes and sites of the CNMI and explores whether these experiences would lead to repeat visitation. The paper demonstrates that the history of the islands, in particular the World War II sites, received a generally positive response coupled with a higher percentage of visitation. Aspects of local culture were less well received. It appears that the overall experience was marred by a perceived low quality of amenities and service
[PDF document, Full text]

 

Sayers, Elizabeth and Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) The Attitudes of Japanese Tourists towards Cultural heritage attractions in the CNMI. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 386-397

Eco-tourism and cultural tourism is being regarded as a major strategy to open up new tourism markets for some Micronesian states. With Japanese visitors making up the single largest contingent of tourists to Micronesia, there is a need to examine their attitudes towards the cultural and historical elements of the islands. Are they in fact interested in such attributes and what are their expectations for a visit? This paper examines the attitudes and expectations of a cohort of Japanese tourists to the CNMI and outlines the challenge faced by the cultural heritage and tourism management authorities
[PDF document, Full text]

 
Clancy, Laura, Thwaites, Rik and Spennemann, Dirk HR (2006) The Public Face of Indigenous Cultural Tourism in South-East Australia. Project Summary Report to Parks Victoria. Albury: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University.

This report provides a summary of the research project The Public Face of Indigenous Cultural Tourism in south-east Australia undertaken by Laura Clancy as Honours project at Charles Sturt University. The aims of the research were to investigate the extent of Indigenous Cultural Tourism information presented in the Australian media and the availability of Indigenous Cultural Tourism information to individuals actively seeking it. The first aim was achieved by carrying out a content analysis of various sources of information including newspapers, magazines and television travel programs. The second aim involved an in-person survey of Visitor Information Centres in south-west Victoria, by means of semi-structured interviews and brochures collection.
     The results from the content analysis of media coverage demonstrate that only a small percentage of the Australian tourism products publicised relate to Indigenous Cultural Tourism. Furthermore, what little Indigenous Cultural Tourism information was presented was geographically biased towards the Northern Territory. Yet, in contrast, the majority of general Australian tourism products publicised were located in NSW, Victoria and Queensland.
     The survey of Visitor Information Centres in south-west Victoria showed that Indigenous Cultural Tourism products are not recommended by staff Visitor Information Centres when a tourist first enters a centre asking for cultural tourism opportunities. However, once an interest in Indigenous Cultural Tourism is shown by a tourist, staff presented the required information to tourists comprehensively and accurately. As staff/volunteers specialize in presenting attractions from the local area, their knowledge is limited to Indigenous Cultural Tourism products of that area. The brochure analysis indicated that the number of Indigenous Cultural Tourism brochures available to tourists is small compared to the number of other brochures available.

 

2002
145. Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Look, David W. & Graham, Kristy (2002) Heritage Ecotourism in Micronesia: What do Decision Makers expect? Pacific Tourism Review vol 6 n 1, pp. 51-61

A questionnaire was administered to the participants of the first Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium in Micronesia (held between 28 February and 3 March 2000 on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The study looks at the attitudes Micronesian decision makers have towards Heritage Eco-Tourism.

 

2001
Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds) (2001), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/ Association des Mus¡es des Øles du Pacifique. viii, 231 pages. ISBN 982-9056-01-5

A refereed collection of 22 papers dealing with cultural heritage management and cultural interpretation issues in the Pacific.

Over the past twenty years, each of the Pacific Island states has nurtured a rapid evolution in the way it protects and exploits its cultural heritage. Nations do not feel alone: there is often a sense of companionship, from ancient history to experiences in the post-independence era. Urban and other economic development, mass tourism, as well as a new development of a common regional identity, place an increasing strain on the maintenance of each unique heritage. At the same time the increasing volume of overseas visitation allows the host communities to portray their culture and heritage to a wider audience.

While the current situation stimulates the awareness that heritage is in urgent need of management and interpretation, and while there are many successes throughout the region by a variety of players, comparatively little has been written by the stakeholders about the processes and activities they undertake. This book attempts to correct this under-representation.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Neal Putt (2001) Heritage Management and Interpretation in the Pacific. in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/Association des Mus¡es des Øles du Pacifique. Pp. 1-10.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Memories, Memorabilia and Monuments: Private, Territorial and Federal Interpretations of the Pacific War in Guam. in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/Association des Mus¡es des Øles du Pacifique. Pp. 49-68.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2001) Visitors and their Impact: Protecting Heritage Ecotourism Places from their Clientele. in: Dirk H.R. Spennemann and Neal Putt (eds), Cultural Interpretation of Heritage Sites in the Pacific. Suva, Fiji: Pacific Islands Museums Association/Association des Mus¡es des Øles du Pacifique. Pp. 187-228.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Look David W., and Graham, Kristy (2001) Heritage Eco-Tourism in Micronesia. Expectations of Government Officials. Cultural Resource Management 24(1), pp. 30-32.

A questionnaire was administered to the participants of the first Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium in Micronesia (held between 28 February and 3 March 2000 on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The study looks at the attitudes Micronesian decision makers have towards Heritage Eco-Tourism.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R., Look, David W., and Graham, Kristy (2001) Perceptions of Heritage Eco-tourism by Micronesian Decision Makers. Johnstone Centre Report Vol. 147. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre, Charles Sturt University. ISBN 1 86467 077 0

A questionnaire was administered to the participants of the first Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium in Micronesia (held between 28 February and 3 March 2000 on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). The study compares the attitudes and expectations of Micronesian decision mak-ers towards Heritage Eco-Tourism at the beginning and at the end of the symposium.

 

2000
Look, David W. & Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium, Rota, Feb. 28-Mar. 3, 2000. Cultural Resource Management 23(3), p. 35.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Memories, Memorabilia and Monuments: Private, Territorial and Federal Interpretations of the Pacific War in Guam. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) The four Axiomata for the management of Cultural Heritage Places. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Visitor Management Plans. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Promoting Heritage: Strategies for Subliminal Marketing. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2000) Visitors and their Impact: Protecting Heritage Ecotourism Places from their Clientele. in: David W. Look (compiler), Symposium folder. "Heritage Eco-Tourism Symposium: the Best of Both Worlds" 28 February-3 March 2000. Rota: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
 

1998
Midgley, Emma, Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Johnstone, Harvey (1998) The impact of visitors on Aboriginal Sites in Mungo National Park. Archaeology in Oceania 33(3), pp. 221-231.

Visitor impact is an inherent and dynamic component of cultural heritage management whenever cultural sites are accessed by people. Mungo National Park has become the focus of some 35,000 visitors per year. The impacts these visitors have on the archaeological record is investigated in this study. A series of fourteen mock sites, composed of stone artefact and bone scatters, were created in the park and the impacts that visitors had on these sites were monitored over a five month period. The results indicate that high visitation areas are subject to a variety of impacts, and site components are frequently moved, turned over, clustered and pilfered. Recognition of these impacts can lead to improvements in the management and conservation of archaeological sites.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Taffee, Richard (1998) Managing childrens' interactions with cultural heritage placesJournal of Park and Recreation Administration 16(2), pp. 73-87.

The impact of children on cultural heritage places is a phenomenon dreaded by parks managers. Children's means of exploring and comprehending the world around them is much more direct and less abstract than that of adults. By understanding children's learning behaviour the processes leading to a detrimental impact can not only be avoided, but moreover be turned into a positive experience for children and parents alike. Parks Management can be informed by experiences garnered in the fields of museum interpretation and education in zoological and marine parks.
The mere provision of textual and pictorial information is limiting the learning experience of children, as well as that of many adults. Show-cased specimens of artefacts are illustrative to an adult audience, they are 'remote' for children. Management needs to provide for controlled environments in which children can satisfy their needs of examining artefacts and sensitive items on their terms through touch tables and other interactive displays forcing the adoption of different postures etc. If well done, this satisfies children's need for physical exploration and reduces impact in the open space setting.
For geographically remote parks there is a need to provide an outlet for children to 'let off steam' after a long trip in the car. The establishment of an adventure playground would be desirable, preferably designed with thematic reference to the specific park visited.
Park infrastructure must address children's learning and energy dissipation needs through the provision of interpretation centres and (outside) activity areas appropriate to children of various ages.
This needs to be coupled with information and guidelines for parents visiting parks, including strategies to control and channel children's actions and energy through (i) careful planning of the trip and the approaches to the park; (ii) planning of activities at arrival and (iii) guidelines for appropriate parental control during the visit.
Parents will have a better visitor experience if their children are engaged in a captivating learning experience. Such children will be less demanding of parental control and their parents will have more time to follow their own interests. It follows that such parents will also be more responsive to issues of nature and cultural conservation.


This document forms part of the hypertext curriculum vitaeof Dr. Dirk H.R. Spennemann (Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia). If you arrived at this page through a search engine you may wish to call up http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem which will link you to the top of the frame-based CV.