dirk hr spennemann

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WW II & Cold War : 
History & Heritage Management

Publications by Dirk HR Spennemann
2015
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2015) History, Description and Technical Details of the WREROC missile cameras. vers. 1.0. CAMERA | TOPIA (Albury NSW).

10pp, ISBN 978 1 921220 16 6; DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1014.8968

At a time before the development of real-time electronic data collection, high-speed cine cameras were required to record the behaviour and relative success of missiles to their intended targets. To assess the flight stability and roll behaviour of some missiles, Australia’s Weapon Research Establishment (WRE) developed the WRE Roll Orientation Camera (WREROC), which made use of the recently developed Dixon lens with a 180° field of vision. This study provides the history and technical details of these cameras [PDF document, Full text]

Additional resource:
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2015) Photographic Walk-Around of the WREROC Missile Camera vers. 1.0. CAMERA | TOPIA (Albury NSW) 5pp
[PDF document, Full text]

 

2014
Spennemann, Dirk H R (2014) Silent Sentinels. The Japanese Guns of the Kiska WWII Battlefield. Anchorage, AK: US National Park Service Alaska Regional Office. 28pp
[PDF document, Full text]
 

2013
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2013) Hind-casting the Japanese Military Base on Midway Atoll (Central Pacific). Journal of Conflict Archaeology vol. 8 (2), pp. 136-59

The Battle of Midway was the turning point of World War II in the Pacific. Not only did the battle cost the Japanese Navy four of its fleet carriers, it also thwarted Japanese hopes of establishing a seaplane base there. Midway, in conjunction with another in the Aleutians, was to be the anchor of Japan?s eastern defence perimeter. Drawing on an analysis of the Japanese military base on Kiska (Aleutians) this paper reconstructs what equipment the Japanese had destined to be placed on Midway. A comparison with the well-documented Japanese bases on Micronesian atolls allows us to hindcast the appearance of a base that never was.

Spennemann, Dirk HR (2013) Strategy: An Australian World War II-era map-based board game. The Globe: Journal of The Australian and New Zealand Map Society no. 73, pp. 1–15.

Once of the cultural responses to military conflict is to allow noncombatant arm chair strategists to participate in the comfort of their own homes, either through maps following the progress of the war, or through strategic table top and board games. This paper outlines the history of ?Strategy?, the only Australian board game published during World War II that has the war as its focus.

 

2012
Spennemann, Dirk HR (2012) Interpreting WWII intelligence data for cultural heritage studies. Journal of Conflict Archaeology vol. 7 nľ 2, 105-132.

Archaeological and cultural resource management analyses of sites of conflict of the recent past regularly draw on archival intelligence sources, in particular on aerial imagery. Like any other data source, they have their limitations. Using a case study, the World War II battlefield of Kiska in the Aleutians, this paper outlines the processes that generated these intelligence resources, as well as the factors that influenced their survival to the present day. Understanding these processes is necessary when using such sources to understand the development of cultural landscapes as well as specific sites.

 

2011
Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2011) The Cultural Landscape of the World War II Battlefield of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. Findings of a cultural heritage survey, carried out in June 2009. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. 552pp.

In June 1942 the Japanese attacked the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, as part of a major strategic offensive in the Pacific. While their main objective, the destruction of the U.S. carriers and the establishment of a seaplane base on Midway Atoll, failed the Aleutian part of the operation succeeded. The Japanese established two bases, one on Attu and one on Kiska, at the western end of the chain. Of the two, Kiska became the better developed, serving as a base for seaplane and midget submarine patrols. For over a year, Kiska was subjected to regular aerial bombardment and occasional naval shelling by U.S. forces that attempted to dislodge the Japanese. Following the re-conquest of Attu by U.S. forces and the subsequent evacuation of the Japanese garrison of Kiska, U.S. and Canadian forces re-occupied Kiska unopposed. To deny the Japanese an opportunity of return, and to potentially use Kiska as a staging point for further operations, the U.S. forces developed a base on Kiska. That garrison was closed after the end of the war. Since the end of the war Kiska is uninhabited.
To recognize the significance of the battlefield to the American people, a large part of Kiska was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1985. Kiska’s WWII importance was more recently affirmed with its inclusion in the WWII Valor in the Pacific National Monument designation of 2008.
Today the island exhibits extensive traces of the war effort, reflecting not only defensive and offensive aspects of the war action but also evidence of the Japanese and the U.S./Canadian base developments. The survey carried out in 2009 and subsequent analysis identified a range of tangible landscape patterns that exemplify the Battle for Kiska and that circumscribe the nature of a twentieth-century battlefield where majority of battle was engagement between attacking U.S. bombers and fighter planes and the Japanese trying to fend off these attacks with anti-aircraft fire and seaplane fighters.
Because Kiska had been essentially uninhabited for over a century before the outbreak of World War II, and because the island has been a (uninhabited) wildlife refuge since the war, these remains and landscape patterns are extremely well preserved. Kiska forms a cultural landscape with a high level of integrity that is arguably unique on a global scale.
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR, Clemens, Janet & Kozlowski, Janis (2011) Scars on the Tundra: the cultural landscape of the Kiska Battlefield, Aleutians. Alaska Park Science, vol. 10, no 1, pp. 16-21

The events of World War II transformed Kiska Island in the Aleutians into a cultural landscape that is truly unique on a global scale. Following more than 120 years without human settlement, Kiska was briefly occupied by over 7,000 Japanese troops (June 1942-July 1943), and after their withdrawal, by a garrison of 1,200 US troops (August 1943-November 1944). After the end of the war it became once more uninhabited and today forms part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. The short burst of heavy military development resulted in a wide range of cultural resources on the island, ranging from midget submarines to aircraft wrecks, from piers to tent sites. This paper describes the resources on the island, discusses their significance on a global scale, and outlines the role and extent of NPS involvement (1986, 1989, 2007, and 2009) in the management of this unique place of our nation's heritage.

 

2009
Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2009) The Remains of a Japanese Plane at Salmon Lagoon, Kiska Island, Aleutian Chain, Alaska. Identification and Condition Assessment. Report prepared for the US National Park Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Albury, NSW: Institute for Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University. 73pp

ABSTRACT
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Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2009) The Market for Japanese WW II Aircraft Memorabilia. A Rapid Appraisal of Online Auctions in June and July 2009. Report prepared for the US National Park Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Albury, NSW: Heritage Futures International. 20pp

ABSTRACT
[PDF document, Full text]

 

2008
Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska I., Aleutians, Alaska. The 6inch Gun Battery on Little Kiska Island. (Report Kiska #4) Documentation and Condition Report. November 2008. Documentation prepared for the US Fish Kiska150CDLittleKiska Wildlife Service, Alaska. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia 209pp

ABSTRACT
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Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska I., Aleutians, Alaska. The 6inch Gun Battery on North Head, Kiska Island. (Report Kiska #5) Documentation and Condition Report. November 2008. Documentation prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia. 95pp

ABSTRACT
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska Island, Aleutians, Alaska. 120mm Dual Purpose Gun Battery on North Head, Kiska Island. (Report Kiska #3) Documentation and Condition Report. Documentation prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia. 128pp

ABSTRACT
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska Island, Aleutians, Alaska. The 4.7inch Battery on North Head, Kiska Island. (Report Kiska #2) Documentation and Condition Report. October. Documentation prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia. 134pp

ABSTRACT
[PDF document, Full text]

Spennemann, Dirk HR. (2008) The Present and Future Management of the Japanese Guns on Kiska I., Aleutians, Alaska. Conservation Management Plan. (Report Kiska #1) Study prepared for the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska. December 2008. Shepparton, Vic: Heritage Futures Australia. 396pp

ABSTRACT
[PDF document, Full text]

 

2006
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Examples of Adaptive re-Use of World War II Artefacts in Micronesia. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 268-284

Many Pacific Islands are littered with the remains of World War II. These remains range from the wrecks of ships, tanks and aircraft, to costal defense installations and general base infrastructure. The abundance of material left behind after the cessation of hostilities meant that local communities had abundant opportunity to salvage elements and put them to their own use. This paper provides an overview of the nature of adaptive reuse to which World War II artefacts have been put in Micronesia, highlighting the impact on heritage sites but also the innovation and transmodification that occurred, establishing new historic contexts for the artefacts
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Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Managing unexploded ammunition at and near cultural heritage sites. Issues for Micronesian Historic Preservation. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 234-267

Unexploded ammunition is a common hazard among heritage sites that have been the focus of military action. As the unpredictable nature of such ammunition threatens the wellbeing of management staff and visitors alike, unexploded items are normally removed and destroyed. That action, on the other hand, contravenes the principle that heritage sites should be in place and preserved unchanged to the extent feasible. This paper sets out the historical conditions that rise to the problem, discussed the nature and extent o the problem and strives to find an balanced approach that safeguards human life and health, while at the same time reduces the impact to the heritage places thus managed
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Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) A British six-inch gun at Barcinas Bay, Tinian, CNMI. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 130-136

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Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006) Physical reminders of the British-Japanese Armament Trade in Micronesia. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 113-129

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Spennemann, Dirk H.R. and Look, David (2006) Impact of Tropical vegetation On World War II-Era cultural resources in the Marshall Islands. Micronesian Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences vol. 5 no. 1/2, pp. 440-462

The tropical environments prevalent on the islands of the Central Pacific is deleterious to the preservation of cultural materials. This is particular so for metal-based items, which make up the bulk of the extant material cultural associated with World War II sites. This paper views the impacts posed by the vegetation on the preservation of the remains of aircraft, guns and other equipment
[PDF document, Full text]

 
1996
Look, David W. & Dirk H.R.Spennemann (1996) In a tropical marine climate: Conservation Management of Historic Metals. APT Bulletin 27(1-2), 60.

A severe tropical climate and a lack of maintenance have resulted in huge inventory of World War II (WWII) sites and objects in the Pacific Area (in both US territories and in the new republics of Freely Associated States of Micronesia) in an advanced, accelerated state of deterioration. How can we assist the Micronesians in preserving a brief moment in time when two foreign nations fought a war on their homeland? The commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the WWII has come and gone. Although the war has not been forgotten, the current hard economic situation in the US, Micronesia, and elsewhere has not been the ideal time to secure the preservation of these vulnerable resources. Since we do not have adequate funds to preserve these irreplaceable cultural resources, what can we do to slow the rate of deterioration.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) Adaptive re-use of B-24 parts in the Marshall Islands Briefing-The Journal of the Intenational Liberator Club 59, p. 3.

The abundance of military sites and materiel of the Pacific War meant that many places and objects found secondary uses during and especially after the war. The paper reviews the secondary use of parts of B-24 'Liberator' bomber aircraft. Prime items were aluminium oxygen cylinders which served as cooking pots, but aluminium struts, and even entire propeller baldes also found their use.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1996) B-24 Liberators on virtual display on the Internet. Briefing-The Journal of the Intenational Liberator Club 56, 22

The abundance of military sites and materiel of the Pacific War meant that many places and objects found secondary uses during and especially after the war. The paper reviews the secondary use of parts of B-24 ˇLiberator® bomber aircraft. Prime items were aluminium oxygen cylinders which served as cooking pots, but aluminium struts, and even entire propeller baldes also found their use.

 

1995
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Physical reminders of the British-Japanese Armament Trade in Micronesia. Journal of the Pacific Society (Tokyo) 18(3), 1-15.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) British Naval Guns in Micronesia. Mariners Mirror 81(3), 343-347.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1995) Memories, Memorabilia and Monuments: private, territorial and federal interpretations of the Pacific War in Guam. In: E.Beckmann and Stephen Hull (eds)Interpretation: attached to heritage', Papers presented at the Third Annual Conference of Interpretation Australia Association 5-7 December 1994. Collingwood, Vic: Interpretation Australia. Pp. 195-205
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. & Look, David W. (1995) Impact of tropical vegetation on historical cultural resources. A photographic case study from the Marshall Islands. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report 18. Albury, NSW: The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University.
 

1994
Look, David W. & Dirk H.R.Spennemann (1994) Preparing for the 50th anniversary of Guam Liberation. Metals Conservation Course and Demonstration Project. CRM Bulletin 17(8): 35-36.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1994) The last flight of the 'St. Quentin Quail'. Investigations of the wreckage and history of Consolidated B-24 'Liberator' aircraft #42-41205 off Jab'u Island, Arno Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage Report No 17- The Johnstone Centre for Parks, Recreation and Heritage, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW., 1994.
 

1993
Look, David W. and Dirk H.R. Spennemann, (1993) For Future Use: A Management Conservation Plan for the World War II sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. , Albury, NSW, Australia, and San Francisco, U.S.A.: The Johnstone Centre of Park, Recreation and Heritage and the U.S. National Park Service Western Regional Office.
Look, David W. & Dirk H.R. Spennemann (1993) Saving WWII Historic Sites. Metals Conservation Course in the Marshall Islands. Cultural Resource Management Bulletin [U.S. National Park Service] 16 (5), 22-24.
 

1992
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) World War II Sites on Wotje Island. In: David W. Look and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (compilers), 'Conservation of Iron Artefacts in a Tropical Marine Climate .' Workbook for a workshop held at Majuro and Wotje Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands, December 3rd to 10th, 1992. Majuro Atoll: Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office and U.S. National Park Service, Western Regional Office
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) The Cultural Resources of Wotje Atoll. In: David W. Look and Dirk H.R. Spennemann (compilers), 'Conservation of Iron Artefacts in a Tropical Marine Climate .' Workbook for a workshop held at Majuro and Wotje Atolls, Republic of the Marshall Islands, December 3rd to 10th, 1992. Majuro Atoll: Republic of the Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office and U.S. National Park Service, Western Regional Office
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Apocalypse now?-the fate of World War II sites on the Central Pacific Islands. Cultural Resources Management [U.S.National Park Service, Washington] 15(2), 1992, 15-16, 22.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) World War II Remains on Central Pacific Islands: Perceptions of Heritage versus Priorities of Preservation. The Pacific Review 5 (3), 1992, 278-290.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992)Republic of the Marshall Islands World War II Historic Sites Recording Programme . National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers Resource Fair 1992. Washington D.C. 8 pp.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1992) Wotje, Wotje Atoll. Air Marshall Islands Sunday Escape . Folded tour brochure. Majuro: AIRMarshall Islands.
 

1991
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Taroa, Maloelap Atoll. Air Marshall Islands Sunday Escape . Folded tour brochure. Majuro: AIRMarshall Islands.
Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (1991) Mile, Mile Atoll. Air Marshall Islands Sunday Escape . Folded tour brochure. Majuro: AIRMarshall Islands.


This document forms part of the hypertext curriculum vitaeof Dr. Dirk H.R. Spennemann (Charles Sturt University, Albury, Australia). If you arrived at this page through a search engine you may wish to call up http://csusap.csu.edu.au/~dspennem which will link you to the top of the frame-based CV.